Українська Русский English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fz

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2001; 47(1): 116-132


The modern conceptof the peripheral erectile mechanisms

M. I. Boyko, K. R. Nurymanov

    Institute of Urology and NephrologyAcademy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev


Abstract

M. I. Boyko, K. R. Nurymanov THE MODERN CONCEPT OF THE PERIPHERAL ERECTILE MECHANISMS The article describes the peripheral mechanisms of erection and control over them. This knowledge has been acquired as a result of the recent development of pharmacological research designed to study the regulation of erectile smooth muscle tone. Smooth muscle fibres of the corpora cavernosa and arteries supplying the penis relax in response to a reduction of intracellular calcium. This relaxation allows both an increase of the blood flow to the penis and opening of sinusoid spaces. Cyclic nucleotides, cGMP and cAMP, are intracellular messengers of the mediators acting on smooth muscle fibres and regulating these intracellular calcium movements. Nitric oxide (NO) increases the intracellular cGMP concentration that triggers relaxation. Other proerectile mediators, such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, prostaglandin E1, are of the secondary importance. In contrast, neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system (norepinephrine), neuropeptide Y, and endothelin induce contraction of cavernous smooth muscle fibres, thereby opposing erection. Oxygenation of the cavernous tissue is also an important factor in the regulation of local mechanisms of erection. Regulation of calcium sensitivity as well as functioning of intracellulare contact ? gap junction are of certain interest. A better understanding of the peripheral pharmacology of erection opens the way to new pathophysiological and therapeutic prospects in the broad context of erectile dysfunction. Institute of Urology and Nephrology Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev

References

  1. СПИСОК ЛІТЕРАТУРИ
  2. Бойко Н. И. Кровоснабжение полового члена и гемодинамика эрекции // Сексоло- гия и андрология. — 1996. — №3. — С.6-12.
  3. Бойко М. І. Сучасні уявлення про механізм ерекції // Урологія. — 2000. — 4, №1. — С.99-103.
  4. Бойко М. І., Борисенко Ю. О., Бистров Л. О. Клінічна сексологія і андрологія / Під ред. Возіанова О. Ф., Горпинченко І. І — К.: Здоров’я, 1996. — 536 с.
  5. Бойко Н. И., Борисенко Ю.А., Быстров Л. А. и др. Сексология и андрология / Под ред. Возианова А. Ф., Горпинченко И. И. — К.: Абрис, 1997. — 880 с.
  6. Вавілова Г. Л., Акопова О. В., Сагач В. Ф. Ендотеліальні фактори в регуляції активності Nа+, К+-АТФази // Фізіол. журн. — 2000. — 46, №4. — С.101-117.
  7. Вагнер Г., Грин Р. Импотенция (физиология, психология, хирургия, диагностика и лечение). — М.:Медицина, 1985. — 240 с.
  8. Васильченко Г. С., Агаркова Т. Е., Агарков С. Т. и др. Сексопатология: справочни Под ред. Васильченко Г. С. — М.: Медицина, 1990. — 576 с.
  9. Мойбенко О. О., Сагач В. Ф., Шаповал Л. М. та ін. Роль ендотелію та біологічно активних речовин ендотеліального походження в регуляції кровообігу і діяльності серця // Фізіол. журн. — 1997. — 43, №1-2. — С.3-18.
  10. 9. Сагач В. Ф. Ендотелін та серцево-судинна система // Фізіол. журн. — 1998. — 44, №1-2. — С.104-111.
  11. 10. Сагач В. Ф., Андрухов О. Я. Вплив оксиду азоту на скорочувальну активність скінованих препаратів гладеньких м’язів ворітної вени щура // Фізіол. журн. — 2000. — 46. — С.3-9. М. І. Бойко, К. Р. Нуріманов
  12. 128 ISSN 0201-8489 Фізіол. журн., 2001, Т. 47, № 1 Cучасні уявлення щодо периферичних механізмів ерекції
  13. Ткаченко М. М. Оксид азоту та судинна регуляція // Журн. АМН України. — 1997. — 3, №2. — С.241-254.
  14. Adaikan P. G., Karim S. M. Effects of histamine on the human penis muscle in vitro// Eur. J. Pharmacol. — 1977. — 45. — P.261-266.
  15. Adaikan P. G., Kottegoda S. R., Ratnam S. S. Is vasoactive intestinal polypeptide the principal transmitter involved in human penile erection? // J. Urol. — 1986. 136. — P.638-640.
  16. Adaikan P. G., Lau L. C., NG S. C., Ratnam S. S. Physiopharmacology of humanpenile erection — autonomic/nitrergic neurotransmission and receptors of the humancorpus cavemosum // Asian Pac. J. Pharmacol. — 1991. — 6. — P.213-227.
  17. Andersson K.-E. Clinical pharmacology of potassium channel openers // Pharmacol.Toncol. — 1992. — 70. — P.244-264.
  18. Andersson K.-E., Fovaeus M., Hedlund H., Lundin S. Characterization of immuno-reactive arginine vasopressin (AVP) in and effects of AVP on isolated human penileerectile tissue // J. Urol. — 1986. — 137. — P.1278-1282.
  19. Andersson K.-E., Hedlund H., Mattiasson A. et al. Relaxation of isolated humancorpus spongiosum induced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, carbacholand electrical field stimulation // World J. Urol. — 1983. — 1. — P.203-208.
  20. Azadzoi K. M., Kim N., Brown M. L. et al. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide andproducts modulate corpus cavemosum smooth muscle tone // J. Urol.—1992. — 147. — P.220-225.
  21. 19. Berridge M. J. Inositol triphosphate and diaglycerol as second messengers //J. — 1984. — 220. — P.345-360.
  22. 20. Beavo J. A., Conti M., Heaslip R. G. Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases// Mol. Pharmacol. — 1994. — 46. — P.399-405.
  23. Blanco R., Saenz de Tejada I., Goldstein I. et al. Dysfunctional penile cholinergicnerves in diabetic impotent men // J. Urol — 1992. — 144. — P.278-280.
  24. Blum M. D., Bahnson R. R., Porter T. M., Carter M. F. Effect of local alpha-adrenergic blockade on human penile erection // Ibid. — 1985. — 134. — P.479-481.
  25. Bornman M. S., Franz R. C., Jacobs D. J., Du Plessis D. J. Thromboxane B2 productionduring erection // Andrologia — 1986. — 18. — P.220-223.
  26. Brindley G. S. Cavernosal alpha-blockade and human penile erection // J. Physiol.Lond. — 1983. — 342. — P.24.
  27. Brindley G. S. Cavernosal alpha-blockade: a new technique for investigating andtreating erectile impotence // Brit. J. Psychiatry. — 1983. — 143. — P.332-337.
  28. Brindley G. S. Pilot experiments on the actions of drugs injected into the humancorpus cavernosum penis // Brit. J. Pharmacol. — 1986. — 87. — P.495-500.
  29. Broderick G., Hypolite J., Levin R. M. In-vitro contractile response of the rabbitcorpus cavernosa to field stimulation and autonomic agonists and antagonists: a qualitativestudy // Neurourol. Urodyn. — 1991. — 10. — P.607-615.
  30. Burnett A. L., Lowenstein C. J., Bredt D. S. et al. Nitric oxide: a physiologic mediatorof penile erection // Science Wash. — 1992. — 257. — P.401-403.
  31. 29. Bush P. A., Gonzalez N. E., Ignarro L J. Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and citrullineL-arginine by constitutive nitric oxide synthase present in rabbit corpus cavernosum// Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. — 1992. — 186. — P.308-314.
  32. 30. Buvat J., Lemaire A., Buvat-Herbaut M., Marcolin G. Safety of intracavernous injectionsusing an alpha-blocking agent // J. Urol. — 1989. — 141. — P.1364-1367.
  33. Cabanie M., Godfraind T. The role of histamine in the cardiovascular system //Drugs Exp. Clin. Res. — 1988. — 14. — P.141-147.
  34. Carati C.J., Goldie R.G., Warton A. et al. Pharmacology of the erectile tissue of thecanine penis // Pharmacol. Res. Commun. — 1985. — 17. — P.951.
  35. Christ G. J., Brink P. R., Melman A., Spray D. C. The role of gap junctions and ionchannels in the modulation of electrical and chemical signals in human corpus cavernosumsmooth muscle // Int. J. Impotence Res. — 1993. — 5. — P. 77-96.
  36. Christ G. J., Brink P. R., Moreno A. P. et al. Gap junction-mediated intercellular
  37. 1 № ,74 .Т ,1002 ,.нруж .лоізіФ 9848-1020 NSSI129diffusion of Ca2+ in cultured human corporal smooth muscle // Amer. J. Physiol. —1992. — 263. — P.373-383.
  38. Crossman D., McEwan J., Mac Dermot J. et al. Human calcitonin generelated peptideactivates adenylate cyclase and releases prostacyclin from human umbilical veinendothelial cells // Brit. J. Pharmacol. — 1987. — 92. — P.695-701.
  39. Crowe R., Burnstock G., Dickinson I. K., Pryor J. P. The human penis: an unusualpenetration of NPY-immunoreactive nerves within the medial muscle coat of the deepdorsal vein // J. Urol. — 1991. — 145. — P.1292-1296.
  40. Crowe R., Lincoln J., Blackley P. F. et al. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-likeimmunoreactive nerves in the diabetic penis: a comparison between streptozotocin-treatedrats and man // Diabetes. — 1983. — 32. — P.1075-1077.
  41. Dail W. G., Minorsky N., Moll M. A., Manzanares K. The hypogastric nerve pathwayto penile erectile tissue: histochemical evidence supporting vasodilator role // J. Auton.Nerv. Syst. — 1986. — 15. — P.341-349.
  42. 39. Dail W. G., Moll M. A., Weber K. Localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide inpenile erectile tissue and in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat // Neuroscience. —1983. — 10. — P.1379-1386.
  43. 40. DE Miranda Cara A., Claro J. A., Nahoum C., De Nucci G. Comparison of the penileerection induced by intracavernous injection of papaverine and histamine in patientswith psychogenic erection // Int. J. Impotence Res. — 1992. — 4. — P.137.
  44. Dhabuwala C.B., Ramakrishna V.R., Anderson G.F. Beta-adrenergic receptors in humancavernous tissue // J. Urol. — 1985. — 133. — P.721.
  45. Ehmke H., Junemann K.-P., Mayer B., Kummer W. Nitric oxide synthase and vasoactiveintestinal polypeptide colocalization in neurons innervating the human penile circulation// Int. J. Impotence Res. — 1995. — 7. — P.147.
  46. Fahrenkrug J. ВІП and autonomic neurotransmission // Pharmacol. Ther. — 1989.—
  47. 41. — P.515-534.
  48. Ferris C. D., Snyder S. H. Inosilol 1,4,5-triphosphate-activated calcium channels //Annu. Rev. Physiol. — 1992. — 54. — P.469-488.
  49. Finberg J. P. M., Vaedi Y. Inhibitory effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine on penile erectilefunction in the rat // Brit. J. Pharmacol. — 1990. — 101. — P.698-702.
  50. Fцrstermann U., Schmidt H. H. H. W., Pollock J. S. et al. Isoforms of nitric oxidesynthase // Biochem. Pharmacol. — 1991. — 42. — P.1849-1857.
  51. Fovaeus M., Andersson K.-E., Hedlund H. Effects of some calcium channel blockerson isolated human penile erectile tissue // J. Urol. — 1987. — 138. — P.1267-1272.
  52. Gingell C. J. C., Jardin A., Olsson A. M. et al. UK-92480, a new oral treatment forerectile dysfunction // J. Urol. — 1996. — 155. — P.495A.
  53. 49. Giuliano F., Bernabe J., Jardin A., Rouseau J. P. Antierectile role of the sympatheticnervous system in rats // Ibid. — 1993. — 150. — P.519-524.
  54. 50. Gu J., Polak J. M., Probert L. et al. Peptidergic innervation of the human male genitaltract // Ibid. — 1983. — 130. — P.386-391.
  55. Gupta S., Moreland R. B., Munarriz R. et al. Possible role of Na+-K+ ATPase in theregulation of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle contractility by nitric oxide// Brit. J. Pharmacol. — 1995. — 116. — P.2201.
  56. Hedlund H., Andersson K.-E. Comparison of the responses to drugs acting on adreno-ceptors and muscarinic receptors in human isolated corpus cavernosum and cavernousartery // J. Auton. Pharmacol. — 1985. — 5. — P.81-88.
  57. Hedlund H., Andersson K.-E. Effects of some peptides on isolated human penile erectiletissue and cavernous artery // Acta Physiol. Scand. — 1985. — 124. — P.413-419.
  58. Hedlund H., Andersson K.-E. Contraction and relaxation induced by some prostanoidsin isolated human penile erectile tissue and cavernous artery // J. Urol. — 1985. —134. — P.1245-1250.
  59. Hedlund H., Andersson K.-E. Pre- and postjunctional adreno- and muscarinic receptorfunctions in the isolated human corpus spongiosum urethane // J. Auton. Pharmacol.—1984. — 4. — P.241-249.М. І. Бойко, К. Р. Нуріманов
  60. 130 ISSN 0201-8489 Фізіол. журн., 2001, Т. 47, № 1Cучасні уявлення щодо периферичних механізмів ерекції
  61. Hedlund P., Alm P., Hedlund H. et al. Localization and effects of pituitary adenylatecyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in human penile erectile tissues // Acta PhysiolScand. — 1994. — 150. — P.103-104.
  62. Hedlund P., Holmquist F., Hedlund H., Andersson K.-E. Effects of nicorandil onhuman isolated corpus cavernosum and cavernous artery // J. Urol — 1994. — 161.—
  63. Hellstrom W. J. G., Monga M., Wang R. et al. Penile erection in the primate:induction with nitric oxide donors // Ibid. — 1994. — 151. — P.1723.
  64. 59. Himpens B., Kitazawa T., Somlyo A.P. Agonist dependent modulation of Ca2+ sensitivityin rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle // Pflugers Arch. — 1990. — 417. —P.21-28.
  65. 60. Holmquist F., Andersson K.-E., Hedlund H. Actions of endothelin on isolated corpuscavernosum from rabbit and man // Acta Physiol. Scand. — 1990. — 139. — P.113-122.
  66. Holmquist, F., Persson K., Garcia-Pascual A., Andersson K.-E. Phospholipase Cactivation by endothelin-1 and noradrenalin in isolated penile erectile tissue from rabbit// J. Urol. — 1992. — 147. — P.1632-1635.
  67. Holmquist F., Stief C.G., Jonas U., Andersson K.-E. Effects of the nitric oxide synthaseinhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine on the erectile response to cavernous nerve stimulation in the rabbit // Acta. Physiol. Scand. — 1991. — 143. — P.299.
  68. Huang P. L., Dawson T. M., Bredt D. S., Snyder S. H., Fishman M. C. Targeted disruption of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene // Cell — 1993. — 75. —
  69. Hughes A., Thorn S., Martin G., Sever P. Endothelial dependent relaxation of human arteries by peptide hormones // Clin. Sci. — 1985. — 13. — P.88.
  70. Hurwitz L. Pharmacology of calcium channels and smooth muscle // Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. — 1986. — 26. — P.225-258.
  71. Ignarro L.J., Bush P.A., Buga G. M. et al. Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation electrical stimulation cause relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle // Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. — 1990. — 170. — P.843.
  72. Itoh H., Lederis K. Contraction of rat thoracic aorta strips induced by phorbol12-myristate 13-acetate // Amer. J. Physiol. — 1987. — 252. — P.244-247.
  73. Keast J. R., De Groat W. C. Immunohistochemical characterization of pelvic neuronswhich project to the bladder, colon, or penis in rats // J. Comp. Neurol. — 1989. —288. — P.387-400.
  74. 69. Kelm M., Feelisch M., Krebber T. et al. Mechanisms of histamine-induced coronaryvasodilatation: H1-receptor-mediated release of endothellum-derived nitric oxide //J. Vase. Res. — 1993. — 30. — P.132-138.
  75. 70. Kiely E. A., Bloom S. R., Williams G. Penile response to intracavernosal vasoactiveintestinal polypeptide alone and in combination with other vasoactive agents // Brit.J. Urol — 1989. — 64. — P.191-194.
  76. Kimoto Y., Kessler R., Constantinou C. E. Endothelium dependent relaxation of humancorpus cavernosum by bradykinin // J. Urol. — 1990. — 144. — P.1015-1017.
  77. Kimura K., Hashine K., Tamura M. et al. Alpha receptor and prostaglandin receptor-calcium channels in human corpus cavernosum (Abstract) // Int. J. Impotence— 1990. — 2. — P.17.
  78. Kimura K., Kawanishi Y., Tamura M., Imagawa A. Assessment of the alpha-adrenergicreceptors in isolated human and canine corpus cavernosum tissue // Ibid. — 1989. —1. — P.185-189.
  79. Kirkeby H. J., Fahrenkrug J., Holmquist F., Ottesen B. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(ВІП) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) in human penile corpus cavernosumtissue and circumilex veins: localization and in vitro effects // Eur. J. Clin. Invest. —1992. — 22. — P.24-30.
  80. Kirkeby H. J., Jorgensen J., Ottesen B. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in human penile corpuscavernosum and circumflex veins // J. Urol. — 1990. — 145. — P.605-609.
  81. 1 № ,74 .Т ,1002 ,.нруж .лоізіФ 9848-1020 NSSI131
  82. Klinge E., Sjцstrand N. O. Contraction and relaxation of the retractor penis muscleand the penile artery of the bull // Acta Physiol Scand. — 1974. — 420. — P.1-88.
  83. Levin R. M., Wein A. J. Adrenergic alpha-receptors outnumber beta-receptors in humanpenile corpus cavernosum // Invest. Urol. — 1980. — 18. — P.225-226.
  84. Luduena F. P., Grigas E. O. Effect of some biological substances on the dog retractorpenis in vitro // Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. — 1972. — 196. — P.269-274.
  85. 79. McGrath M. A., Shephred J. T. Inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission in caninevascular smooth muscle by histamine: mediation by H2-receptors // Circ. Res. —1976. — 39. — P.566-573.
  86. 80. Molderings G. J., Van Ahlen H., Gцthnert M. Modulation of noradrenaline release inhuman corpus cavernosum by presynaptic prostaglandin receptors // Int. J. ImpotenceRes. — 1992. — 4. — P.19-26.
  87. Moncada S. The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. The 1991 Ulf von Euler Lecture //Acta. Physiol. Scand. — 1992. — 145. — P.201.
  88. Moncada S., Palmer R.M.J., Higgs E.A. Biosynthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine// Biochem. Pharmacol. — 1989. — 38. — P.1709.
  89. Olson N.J., Pearson R.B., Needleman D.S. et al. Regulatory and structural motifs ofchicken gizzard myosin light chain kinase // Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA. — 1990. —
  90. 87. — P.2284-2288.
  91. Porst H. Prostaglandin E1 bei erektiler Dysfunktion // Urologe. — 1989. — 28. —P.94-98.
  92. Porst H. Prostaglandin El and the nitric oxide donor linsidomine for erectile failure: adiagnostic comparative study of 40 patients // J. Urol. — 1993. — 149. — P.1280.
  93. Robertson D. W., Steinberg M. I. Potassium channel modulators: scientific applicationsand therapeutic promise // J. Med. Chem. — 1990. — 33. — P.1529-1541.
  94. Roy A. C., Adaikan P. G., Sen D. K., Ratnam S. S. Prostaglandin 15-hydro-xydehydrogenase activity in human penile corpora cavernosa and its significance inprostaglandin-mediated penile erection // Brit. J. Urol. — 1989. — 64. — P.180-182.
  95. Ruegg J. C. Muskel. — In: Physiologie des Menschen. Schmidt-Thewes (ed). Springer,Heidelberg, New York. — 1995. — P.67-87.
  96. 89. Saenz de Tejada I., Carson M. P., De Las Morenas A. et al. Endotelin: localization,synthesis, activity, and receptor types in human penile corpus cavernosum // Amer. J.Physiol. — 1991. — 261. — H1078-H1085.
  97. 90. Saenz de Tejada I., Kim N., Lagan I., Krane R. J., Goldstein I. Regulation ofadrenergic activity in penile corpus cavemosum//J. Urol.— 1989.— 142.— P.1117-1121.
  98. 91. Sathananthan A. H., Adaikan P. G.,. Lau L. C. et al. Fine structure of the humancorpus cavernosum // Arch. Androl. — 1991. — 26. — P.107-117.
  99. 92. Shanta T. R., Finnerty D. P., Rodriques A. P. Treatment of persistent penile erectionpriapism using terbutaline // J. Urol. — 1989. — 141. — P.1427-1429.
  100. 93. Simonsen U., Prieto D., Saenz de Tejada I., Garcia-Sacristan A. Involvement of nitricoxide in non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmission of horse deep penile arteries:of charybdotoxin-sensitive K+-channels // Brit. J. Pharmacol. — 1995. — 116.—P.2582.
  101. 94. Sjцstrand N. O., Klinge E. Principal mechanisms controlling penile retraction and protrusion in rabbits // Acta Physiol. Scand. — 1979. — 106. — P.199-214.
  102. 95. Somlyo A. P., Somlyo A. V. Signal transduction and regulation in smooth muscle // Nature. — 1994. — 372. — P.231-236.
  103. 96. Stief C. G., Benard F., Bosch R. J. L. H. et al. Acetylcholine as a possible neuro- in penile erection // J. Urol. — 1989. — 14. — P.1444-1448.
  104. 97. Stief C. G., Holmquist F., Allhoff E. P. et al. Preliminary report on the effect of the nitric oxide donor SIN-1 on human cavernous tissue in vivo // World J. Urol. — 1991. — 9. — P.237-241.
  105. 98. Stief C. G., Taher A., Truss M. et al. Die Phosphodiesterase-isoenzyme des humanen Corpus cavernosum penis und deren funktionelle Bedeutung // Aktuel. Urol. — 1995.— 26. — P.58-61. М. І. Бойко, К. Р. Нуріманов
  106. 132 ISSN 0201-8489 Фізіол. журн., 2001, Т. 47, № 1
  107. 99. Stief C. G., Thon W. F., Djamilian M. et al. Trancutaneous registration of cavernous smooth muscle electrical activity: noninvasive diagnosis of neurogenic autonomic impotence // J. Urol. — 1992. — 147. — P.47-50.
  108. 100. Stief C. G., Wettrauer U., Schaebsdau F. H., Jonas U. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide: a possible role in human penile erection and its therapeutic application in impotent patients // Ibid. — 1991. — 146. — P.1010-1014.
  109. 101. Sybertz E. J., Desiderio D. M., Tetzloff G., Chui P. J. S. Phorbol dibutyrate contractions in rabbit aorta // J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. — 1986. — 239. — P.78-83.
  110. 102. Taher A., Stief C. G., Raida M. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in human cavernous smooth muscle and the effect of various selective inhibitors // Int. J. Impotence Res. — 1992. — 4. — P.11.
  111. 103. Takahashi Y., Ishii N., Lue T. F., Tanagho E. A. Effects of adenosine triphosphate oncanine penile erection // Ibid. — P.27-34.
  112. 104. Takahashi Y., Ishii N., Lue T. F., Tanagho E. A. Effects of adenosine on caninepenile erection // J. Urol — 1992. — 148. — P.1323-1325.
  113. 105. Tong Y.-C., Broderick G., Hypolite J., Levin R. M. Correlations of purinergic,cholinergic and adrenergic functions in rabbit corporal cavernosal tissue // Pharma-cology. — 1992. — 45. — P.241-249.
  114. 106. Trigo-Rocha F., Hsu G. L., Donatucci C. F., Lue T. F. The role of cyclic adenosinemonophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, endothelium and nonadrenergic noncholinergic neurotransmission in canine penile erection // J. Urol. — 1993. —149. — P.872-877.
  115. 107. Wagner G. Erection. Physiology and Endocrinology. — In: Impotence, Physiological,Psychological, Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment, edited by G. Wagner and R. Green.New York: Plenum, 1981, chapt. 3, P. 24-36.
  116. 108. Wagner G., Brindley G. S. The effect of atropine and ?-and ?-blockers on humanpenile erection: a controlled pilot study. — In: Vasculogenic Impotence, edited by A.W. Zorgniotti and G. Rossi. Springfield, In: Thomas, 1980, chapt. 10, P. 77-81.
  117. 109. Wagner G., Gerstenberg T. Intracavernous injection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(ВІП) does not induce erection in man per se // World J. Urol. — 1987. — 5. —P.171-177.
  118. 110. Walsh M. P. Regulation of vascular smooth muscle // Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.—1993. — 72. — P.919-936.
  119. Wang R., Domer F. R., Sikka S. C. et al. Nitric oxide mediates penile erection in cats// J. Urol. — 1994. — 151. — P.234.
  120. Wespes E., Schiffman S., Gilloteaux J. et al. Study of neuropeptide Y-containingnerve fibers in the human penis // Cell Tissue Res. — 1988. — 254. — P.69-74.
  121. Weston A. H., Abbott A. New class of antihypertensive acts by opening K+-channels// Trends Pitarmacol. Sci. — 1987. — 8. — P.283-284.
  122. Willis E. A., Ottesen B., Wagner G. et al. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (ВІП)as a putative neurotransmitter in penile erection // Life Sci. — 1983. — 33. — P.383-391.
  123. Warner T. D., Schmidt H. W., Murad F. Interactions of endothelins and EDRF inbovin native endothelial cells: selective effects of endothelin-3 // Amer. J. Physiol.—1992. — 262. — H1600-H1605.
  124. Yajima M. Kohno S., Baba K. et al. The coexistence of neuropeptide Y andnorepinephrine in rabbit corpus cavernosum penis: an in vitro study // Int. J. ImpotenceRes. — 1992. — 4. — P.9-12.

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2018.