Українська English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2024; 70(2): 51-58


O.M. Voloshchuk, Н.P. Kopylchuk

    Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Ukraine


The study examined the activity of enzymes in the polyol pathway and the status of free radical processes in the kidneys of rats subjected to different dietary protein and sucrose levels. It was found that the kidneys of animals consuming a highsucrose diet, irrespective of protein content, exhibited the highest increase in the activity of polyol pathway enzymes, namely aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase. Consumption of a high-sucrose diet enhances the generation of O2 •- in the kidneys by almost twofold, and hydroxyl radical by over fourfold compared to control indicators. This is accompanied by a twofold increase in the content of TBARS-active products and a threefold increase in the content of carbonyl derivatives of proteins, against the background of a decrease in the content of free thiol groups in proteins. The pronounced generation of hydroxyl radicals, accumulation of TBARS-active products, and reduction in the content of free SH-groups in proteins are characteristic of animals that consumed a high-sucrose diet in the context of dietary protein deficiency. It has been demonstrated that excessive sucrose consumption is a critical factor, influencing the activity of enzymes in the polyol pathway and the intensity of free radical processes. The obtained results may be considered as predisposing factors for disruptions in the structural and functional organization of the kidneys under conditions of nutrient imbalance.

Keywords: nutrients; kidney; aldose reductase; sorbitol dehydrogenase; reactive oxygen species; free radical processes.


  1. Wu G. Dietary protein intake and human health. Food Funct. 2016 Mar;7(3):1251-65. CrossRef PubMed
  2. Souza JA, Pinto ABG, Oliveira EC, Coelho DB, Totou NL, Lima WG, Becker LK. Aerobic exercise training prevents impairment in renal parameters and in body composition of rats fed a high sucrose diet. BMC Res Notes. 2021 Sep;14(1):378. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  3. Fotheringham AK, Solon-Biet SM, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, McCarthy DA, McMahon AC, Ruohonen K, et al. Kidney disease risk factors do not explain impacts of low dietary protein on kidney function and structure. Science. 2021 Oct;24(11):103308. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  4. Amorim RG, Guedes GDS, Vasconcelos SML, Santos JCF. Kidney disease in diabetes mellitus: crosslinking between hyperglycemia, redox imbalance and inflammation. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2019 Jun;112(5):577-87. CrossRef
  5. Yan LJ. Redox imbalance stress in diabetes mellitus: Role of the polyol pathway. Animal Model Exp Med. 2018 Mar;1(1):7-13. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  6. Gyurászová M, Gurecká R, Bábíčková J, Tóthová Ľ. Oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of kidney disease: implications for noninvasive monitoring and identification of biomarkers. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 Jan;2020:5478708. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  7. Zandalinas S, Mittler R. ROS-induced ROS release in plant and animal cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Jul;122:21-7. CrossRef PubMed
  8. Voloshchuk OM, Kopylchuk GP. Intensity of free radical processes in rat skeletal muscles under the conditions of different dietary supply with nutrients. Fiziol Zh. 2022;68(4):48-56. [Ukrainian]. CrossRef
  9. Schenkman JB, Cinti DL. Preparation of microsomes with calcium. Methods Enzymol. 1978;52:83-9. CrossRef PubMed
  10. Alim Z, Kilinç N, Şengül B, Beydemir Ş. Inhibition behaviours of some phenolic acids on rat kidney aldose reductase enzyme: an in vitro study. J Enzyme Inhibit Med Chem. 2017 Dec;32(1):277-84. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  11. Rose CI, Henderson AR. Reaction rate assay of serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activity at 37°C. Сlin Chem. 1975 Oct;21(11):1619-26. CrossRef PubMed
  12. Kostenko VO, Tsebrzhins'kii OI. Production of superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in renal tissues sutured with different surgical suture material. Fiziol Zh. 2000; 46(5): 56-62. [Ukrainian].
  13. Tkachenko MM, Sahach VF, Baziliuk OV, Kotsiuruba AV, Popereka HM, Stepanenko LH, Seniuk OF. Agerelated characteristics of contractile vascular reactions and the content of oxygen free radicals and nitric oxide metabolites in BALB/c mice in conditions of alienation zone. Fiziol Zh. 2005;51(3):32-41. [Ukrainian].
  14. Parihar MS, Pandit MK. Free radical induced increase in protein carbonyl is attenuated by low doses of adenosine in hippocampus and mid brain: implication in neurodegenerative disorders. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2003 Mar; 22(1):29-39.
  15. Murphy ME, Kehrer JP. Oxidation state of tissue thiol groups and content of protein carbonyl groups in chickens with inherited muscular dystrophy. Biochem J. 1989 Jan;260:359-64. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  16. Rodrigues T, de França LP, Kawai C, de Faria PA, Mugnol KC, Braga FM, Tersariol IL, Smaili SS, Nantes IL. Protective role of mitochondrial unsaturated lipids on the preservation of the apoptotic ability of cytochrome C exposed to singlet oxygen. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug;282(35):25577-87. CrossRef PubMed
  17. Matoba K, Takeda Y, Nagai Y, Yokota T, Utsunomiya K, Nishimura R. Targeting redox imbalance as an approach for diabetic kidney disease. Biomedicines. 2020 Feb;8(2):40. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  18. Zopf S, Flämig J, Schmid H, Miosge N, Blaschke S, Hahn EG, Müller GA, Grunewald RW. Localization of the polyol pathway in the human kidney. Histol Histopathol. 2009 Apr;24(4):447-55.
  19. Hashimoto Y, Yamagishi S, Mizukami H, Yabe-Nishimura C, Lim SW, Kwon HM, Yagihashi S. Polyol pathway and diabetic nephropathy revisited: Early tubular cell changes and glomerulopathy in diabetic mice overexpressing human aldose reductase. J Diabet Invest. 2011 Apr;2(2):111-22. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  20. He J, Gao HX, Yang N, Zhu XD, Sun RB, Xie Y. The aldose reductase inhibitor epalrestat exerts nephritic protection on diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice through metabolic modulation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2019 Jan;40(1):86-97. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  21. Liu H, Luo Y, Zhang T, Zhang Y, Wu Q, Yuan L, Chung SS, Oates PJ, Yang JY. Genetic deficiency of aldose reductase counteracts the development of diabetic nephropathy in C57BL/6 mice. Diabetologia. 2011 May;54(5):1242-51. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  22. Tian F, Li Z, Gao D, Liu D. Diabetic nephropathy with crescent: A case report. DINE. 2022 Apr;1(3):125-7. CrossRef
  23. Rosas-Villegas A, Sánchez-Tapia M, Avila-Nava A, Ramírez V, Tovar AR, Torres N. Differential effect of sucrose and fructose in combination with a high fat diet on intestinal microbiota and kidney oxidative stress. Nutrients. 2017 Apr;9(4):393. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  24. Zhong S, Li L, Shen X, Li Q, Xu W, Wang X, Tao Y, Yin H. An update on lipid oxidation and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Nov;144:266-78. CrossRef PubMed
  25. Akagawa M. Protein carbonylation: molecular mechanisms, biological implications, and analytical approaches. Free Radic Res. 2021 Apr;55(4):307-20. CrossRef PubMed
  26. Irazabal MV, Torres VE. Reactive oxygen species and redox signaling in chronic kidney disease. Cells. 2020 May;9(6):1342. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2024.