Українська English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2023; 69(5): 75-82


O.S. Savuliak1, I.A. Sukha2, D.О. Dziuba3, M.I. Melnyk1,4, D.O. Dryn4

  1. ESC “Institute of Biology and Medicine”, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine
  3. P.L. Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  4. O.O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine


Lidocaine is one of the components of multimodal low-opioid anesthesia, which is commonly used in surgical procedures, especially in cardiac surgery. Lidocaine has been used in medicine for a long time as a local anesthetic, but after the invention of the method of its intravenous administration, questions arose about its possible side effects on the visceral system, in particular on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the aim of our work was to investigate the main aspects of the use of lidocaine-based opioid-free anesthesia and its side effects and also to study the effect of lidocaine on the contractile activity of small intestine smooth muscle, namely the mouse ileum. We recorded the contractile activity of smooth muscles of the ileum of mice using the tensiometry method and found that lidocaine at the clinically relevant concentration range, i.e. 1.5, 3, and 5 μg/ml, inhibited carbachol-induced contractions by 16, 27 and 37%, respectively (n = 7). To determine the side effects of opioid-free anesthesia, we studied 60 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary artery stenting with the administration of anesthesia based on lidocaine solution at different concentrations (1 and 2 mg/kg). The side effects included nausea and vomiting, which may indicate а disturbance of gastrointestinal motility, as well as numbness of the limbs, cheeks, tongue, etc. These results contribute to a better understanding of the spectrum of action of lidocaine, a popular anesthetic in surgery, on the visceral system and become an important basis for the future development of new schemes for the use of local anesthetics in clinical practice, particularly in surgical procedures.

Keywords: smooth muscles; small intestine; general anesthesia; lidocaine; tensiometry.


  1. Loskutov, OA, Bondar MV, Ovsienko TV. Multimodal low-opioid anesthesia: components and mechanisms of formation. Emerg Med. 2020;16(2):15-24.
  2. Attal N, Rouaud J, Brasseur L, Chauvin M, Bouhassira D. Systemic lidocaine in pain due to peripheral nerve injury and predictors of response. Neurology. 2004;62(2): 218-25. CrossRef PubMed
  3. Oliveira CM, Sakata RK, Slullitel A, Salomão R, Lanchote VL, Issy AM. Effect of intraoperative intravenous lidocaine on pain and plasma interleukin-6 in patients undergoing hysterectomy. Braz J Anesthesiol. 2015;65(2):92-8. CrossRef PubMed
  4. Koepke EJ, Manning EL, Miller TE, Ganesh A, Williams DGA, Manning MW. The rising tide of opioid use and abuse: the role of the anesthesiologist. Perioper Med. 2018 Jul 3;7(1):1-10. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  5. Daraz YM, Abdelghffar OH. Lidocaine infusion: An antiarrhythmic with neurologic toxicities. Cureus. 2022 Mar 19:e23310. CrossRef
  6. Becker DE, Reed KL. Local anesthetics: review of pharmacological considerations. Anesth Prog. 2012;59(2):90-101. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  7. Scholz A. Mechanisms of (local) anaesthetics on voltagegated sodium and other ion channels. Br J Anaesth. 2002 Jul;89(1):52-61. CrossRef PubMed
  8. Picardi S, Stevens MF, Hahnenkamp K, Durieux ME, Lirk P, Hollmann MW. Time-dependent modulation of muscarinic M1/M3 receptor signalling by local anaesthetics. Br J Anaesth. 2014 Feb 1;112(2):370-79. CrossRef PubMed
  9. Kai T, Nishimura J, Kobayashi S, Takahashi S, Yoshitake JI, Kanaide H. Effects of lidocaine on intracellular Ca2+ and tension in airway smooth muscle. Anesthesiology. 1993;78(5):954-65. CrossRef PubMed
  10. Bauer LA. Chapter 7. Lidocaine. In: Bauer LA. eds. Applied Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 2e. McGraw Hill; 2008.
  11. Dryn D, Luo J, Melnyk M, Zholos A, Hu H. Inhalation anaesthetic isoflurane inhibits the muscarinic cation current and carbachol-induced gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractions. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Feb 2;820:39-44. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  12. Melnyk MI, Dryn DO, Al Kury LT, Dziuba DO, Zholos A V. Suppression of mICAT in mouse small intestinal myocytes by general anaesthetic ketamine and its recovery by TRPC4 agonist (-)-englerin A. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Dec 18;11:594882. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  13. Boysen PG, Pappas MM, Evans B. An evidence-based opioid-free anesthetic technique to manage perioperative and periprocedural pain. Ochsner J. 2018 Jun 1;18(2):121-5. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  14. Fecho K, Lunney AT, Boysen PG, Rock P, Norfleet EA. Postoperative mortality after inpatient surgery: Incidence and risk factors. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Aug 8;4(4):681-8. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  15. Beloeil H. Opioid-free anesthesia. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2019 Sep 1;33(3):353-60. CrossRef PubMed
  16. Sacerdote P, Franchi S, E. Panerai A. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: mechanisms and potential clinical relevance of opioid-induced immunodepression. Curr Pharm Des. 2012 Oct 30;18(37):6034-42. CrossRef PubMed
  17. Lavand'homme P, De Kock M, Waterloos H. Intraoperative epidural analgesia combined with ketamine provides effective preventive analgesia in patients undergoing major digestive surgery. Anesthesiology. 2005;103(4):813-20. CrossRef PubMed
  18. Melnyk MI, Dryn DO, Dziuba DO, Zholos AV. Inhibitory action of the general anesthetic ketamine on intracellular calcium transients and smooth muscle contractions of the mouse small intestine. 2023 Jan; Fiziol Zh. 69 (1):25-34. CrossRef
  19. Tsvilovskyy VV, Zholos AV, Aberle T, Philipp SE, Dietrich A, Zhu MX, et al. Deletion of TRPC4 and TRPC6 in mice impairs smooth muscle contraction and intestinal motility in vivo. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(4):1415-24. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  20. Yunoki M, Nakahara T, Mitani A, Sakamoto K, Ishii K. Role of the M2 muscarinic receptor pathway in lidocaine-induced potentiation of the relaxant response to atrial natriuretic peptide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 1;367(1):76-9. CrossRef PubMed

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2024.