Українська English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2023; 69(1): 35-42

Hematological features of patients with type 2 diabetes depending on the variant of SARS-COV-2

P. Petakh1,2, K. Loshak2, A. Kamyshnyi1

  1. I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University, Ukraine
  2. Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine


The aim of our work was to investigate the peculiarities of hematological indicators in patients with COVID-19 depending on the variant of SARS-CoV-2. A retrospective study of the electronic medical records of 19 patients with the delta variant (7 patients had comorbidity with type 2 diabetes (T2D); 12 patients without T2D - control group) and 46 patients with the omicron variant (26 patients had comorbidity with T2D; 20 patients without T2D - control group). No statistically significant differences were found in gender, the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes in peripheral blood, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer. The results also showed a significant difference in procalcitonin level and monocyte count in patients with delta variant and T2D. A predictive model was developed using binary logistic regression to determine the SARS-CoV-2 variant based on hematological parameters (sensitivity - 76.5%, specificity - 84.8%). Thus, the peculiarities of hematological indicators of patients with T2D depending on the variant of SARS-CoV-2 (delta or omicron) were established.

Keywords: coronavirus infection; type 2 diabetes; omicron; delta; procalcitonin.


  1. Stawicki SP, Jeanmonod R, Miller AC, Paladino L, Gaieski DF, Yaffee AQ, et al. The 2019-2020 novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic: A joint american college of academic international medicine-world academic council of emergency medicine multidisciplinary COVID-19 working group consensus paper. J Global Infect Dis. 2020;12(2):47. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  2. Petakh P, Kamyshna I, Nykyforuk A, Yao R, Imbery JF, Oksenych V, Korda M, Kamyshnyi A. Immunoregulatory intestinal microbiota and COVID-19 in patients with type two diabetes: A double-edged sword. J Viruses. 2022;14(3):477. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  3. Fontanet A, Autran B, Lina B, Kieny MP, Karim SSA, Sridhar D. SARS-CoV-2 variants and ending the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2021;397(10278):952 4. CrossRef PubMed
  4. Dyson L, Hill EM, Moore S, Curran-Sebastian J, Tildesley MJ, Lythgoe KA, et al. Possible future waves of SARSCoV-2 infection generated by variants of concern with a range of characteristics. J Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):1-13. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  5. Karim SSA, Karim QA. Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant: a new chapter in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2021;398(10317):2126-8. CrossRef PubMed
  6. Wolter N, Jassat W, Walaza S, Welch R, Moultrie H, Groome M, et al. Early assessment of the clinical severity of the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant in South Africa: a data linkage study. Lancet. 2022 Jan 29;399(10323):437-46. CrossRef PubMed
  7. Ulloa AC, Buchan SA, Daneman N, Brown KA. Estimates of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Severity in Ontario, Canada. JAMA. 2022 Apr 5;327(13):1286-8. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  8. Tartof SY, Slezak JM, Puzniak L, Hong V, Xie F, Ackerson BK, et al. Durability of BNT162b2 vaccine against hospital and emergency department admissions due to the omicron and delta variants in a large health system in the USA: a test-negative case-control study. Lancet Respir Med. 2022 Jul;10(7):689-99. CrossRef PubMed
  9. Bornstein SR, Rubino F, Khunti K, Mingrone G, Hopkins D, Birkenfeld AL, et al. Practical recommendations for the management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2020;8(6):546-50. CrossRef PubMed
  10. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020;395(10229):1054-62. CrossRef PubMed
  11. Hu L, Chen S, Fu Y, Gao Z, Long H, Ren H-w, Zuo Y, Wang J, Li H, Xu Q-b. Risk factors associated with clinical outcomes in 323 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(16):2089-98. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  12. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, Wang B, Xiang H, Cheng Z, Xiong Y. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus- infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Jama. 2020; 323(11):1061-9. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  13. Zheng Y, Ley SH, Hu FB. Global aetiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018;14(2):88-98. CrossRef PubMed
  14. Bouzid D, Visseaux B, Kassasseya C, Daoud A, Fémy F, Hermand C, et al. IMProving Emergency Care (IMPEC) FHU Collaborators Group. Comparison of Patients Infected With Delta Versus Omicron COVID-19 Variants Presenting to Paris Emergency Departments: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2022 Jun;175(6):831-7. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  15. Sartore G, Bassani D, Ragazzi E, Traldi P, Lapolla A, Moro S. In silico evaluation of the interaction between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in a hyperglycemic environment. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):1-8. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  16. Bassani D, Ragazzi E, Lapolla A, Sartore G, Moro S. Omicron Variant of SARS-CoV-2 Virus: In Silico Evaluation of the Possible Impact on People Affected by Diabetes Mellitus. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Mar 7;13:847993 CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  17. Abdullah F, Myers J, Basu D, Tintinger G, Ueckermann V, Mathebula M, et al. Decreased severity of disease during the first global omicron variant covid-19 outbreak in a large hospital in tshwane, south africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2022;116:38-42. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  18. Roessler A, Riepler L, Bante D, von Laer D, Kimpel J. SARS-CoV-2 B. 1.1. 529 variant (Omicron) evades neutralization by sera from vaccinated and convalescent individuals. J MedRxiv. 2021. CrossRef
  19. Chen J, Wang R, Gilby NB, Wei GW. Omicron (B.1.1.529): Infectivity, vaccine breakthrough, and antibody resistance. Received 31.10.2022 ArXiv [Preprint]. 2021 Dec 1:arXiv:2112.01318v1. Update in: J Chem Inf Model. 2022 Jan 24;62(2):412-22. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  20. Modes ME, Directo MP, Melgar M, Johnson LR, Yang H, Chaudhary P, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes among adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during periods of B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant predominance - One Hospital, California, July 15-September 23, 2021, and December 21, 2021-January 27, 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Feb 11;71(6):217-23. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  21. Hu Z, Huang X, Zhang J, Fu S, Ding D, Tao Z. Differences in clinical characteristics between delta variant and Wild-Type SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Jan 3;8:792135 CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  22. Amin S, Lux A, O'Callaghan F. The journey of metformin from glycaemic control to mTOR inhibition and the suppression of tumour growth. J Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019;85(1):37-46. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  23. Garcia E. Flumamine, a new synthetic analgesic and antiflu drug. J Philippine Med Assoc. 1950;26(7):287-93.
  24. Ma Z, Patel N, Vemparala P, Krishnamurthy M. Metformin is associated with favorable outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):1-7. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  25. Cheng X, Xin S, Chen Y, Li L, Chen W, Li W, Zhou B, Li C, Gong Y, Li F. Effects of metformin, insulin on COVID-19 patients with pre-existed type 2 diabetes: A multicentral retrospective study. Life Sci. 2021;275:119371. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  26. Al-Salameh A, Bennis Y, Cariou B, Lalau J-D. The association between metformin treatment and COVID-19 outcomes according to metformin continuation during hospitalisation. J Diabetes Metab. 2021;47(6):101297. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  27. Agarwal S, Schechter C, Southern W, Crandall JP, Tomer Y. Preadmission diabetes-specific risk factors for mortality in hospitalized patients with diabetes and coronavirus disease 2019. J Diabetes Care. 2020;43(10):2339-44. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  28. Chen Y, Yang D, Cheng B, Chen J, Peng A, Yang C, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with diabetes and COVID-19 in association with glucoselowering medication. J Diabetes Care. 2020;43(7):1399-407. CrossRef PubMed
  29. Salem ES, Grobe N, Elased KM. Insulin treatment attenuates renal ADAM17 and ACE2 shedding in diabetic Akita mice. Am J Physiol-Renal Physiol. 2014;306(6):F629-F39. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  30. Kamyshnyi O, Matskevych V, Lenchuk T, Strilbytska O, Storey K, Lushchak O. Metformin to decrease COVID-19 severity and mortality: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Dec;144:112230. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2024.