IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibodies to SARS-COV-2 in medical workers during the year (2020-2021) before the start of mass vaccination
V.M. Kornatskyi1, N.O. Ryzhkova1, T.I. Gavrilenko1, A.M. Dorokhina1, Yu.V. Kornatskyi1, O.A. Pidgaina1, S.М. Babii2, O.M. Pasichnichenko2
- State Institution National Scientific Center «M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology National Acad- emy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine;
- Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine
The purpose of the work is to assess the levels of IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in
medical workers during the year (2020-2021) before the start of mass vaccination, depending on the presence of clinical symptoms and positive PCR test. It is established that people without antibodies to SARSCoV-2 do not have neutralizing antibodies. The antibody levels, as well as percentage of neutralization,
were higher in individuals who had just recovered from Covid-19 and have positive PCR at the beginning
of the disease compared to those who had no clinical manifestation. There was a positive correlation between the level of IgG and percentage of neutralization. In persons without pronounced clinical symptoms
of coronavirus infection, moderately positive neutralizing antibodies prevail, whereas in the vast majority
of recovered individuals they are highly positive.
1. Hofmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. 2020; 181(2):271280. e8.
2. Lan J, Ge J, Yu J, Shan S, Zhou H, Fan S, et al. Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain bound to the ACE2 receptor. Nature. 2020;581(7807):215-20.
3. Valdez-Cruz NA, García-Hernández E, Espitia C, CobosMarín L, Altamirano C, Bando-Campos CG, et al. Integrative overview of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and their possible applications in COVID‑19 prophylaxis and treatment. Microb Cell Fact. 2021; 20:88.
4. Tay MZ, Poh CM, Rénia L, Paul A, MacAry PA, Ng LFP. The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention. Nature reviews. Immunology. 2020; 20(6):363-74.
5. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020 Mar;579(7798):270-3.
6. Chen X, Li R, Pan Z, Qian C, Yang Y, You R, et al. Human monoclonal antibodies block the binding of SARSCoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020;17(6):647-9.
7. Zinkernagel RM, LaMarre A, Ciurea A, Hunziker L, Ochsenbein AF, McCoy KD, et al. Neutralizing antiviral antibody responses. Adv Immunol. 2001;79:1-53.
8. Liu G, Rusling JF. COVID-19 Antibody Tests and Their Limitations ACS Sensors Cite This: https://dx.doi. org/10.1021/acssensors.0c02621.
9. Deeks JJ, Dinnes J, Takwoingi Y, Davenport C, Spijker R, Taylor-Phillips S, et al. Antibody tests for identification of current and past infection with SARS-CoV-2 (Review). Cochrane COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Accuracy Group. 2020.
10. Long QX, Liu BZ, Deng HJ, Wu CG, Deng K, Chen YK, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020;26(6):845-8.
11. Valdivia A, Torres I, Latorre V, Francés-Gómez C, Albert E, Gozalbo-Rovira R, et al. Inference of SARS-CoV-2 spike-binding neutralizing antibody titers in sera from hospitalized COVID-19 patients by using commercial enzyme and chemiluminescent immunoassays. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. CrossRef 020-04128-8.
12. Isho B, Abe KT, Zuo M, Jamal AJ, Rathod B, Wang JH, et al. Persistence of serum and saliva antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in COVID-19 patients. Sci. Immunol. 2020;5,eabe5511.
13. Fourati S, Hue S, Pawlotsky JM, Mekontso-Dessap A, de Prost N. SARSCoV-2 viral loads and serum IgA/IgG immune responses in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Intens Care Med. 2020;46(9):1781-3.
14. Peiris JS, Chu CM, Cheng VCC, Chan KS, Hung IFN, Poon LLM, et al. Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study. Lancet. 2003;361:1767-72.
15. Zhang L, Zhang F, Yu W, He T, Yu J, Yi CE, et al. Antibody responses against SARS coronavirus are correlated with disease outcome of infected individuals. J Med Virol. 2006;78:1-8.
16. Arabi YM, Hajeer AH, Luke Th, Raviprakash K, Balkhy H, Johani S, et al. Feasibility of using convalescent plasma immunotherapy for MERS-CoV infection. Saudi Arabia Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:1554.
17. Drosten C, Meyer B, Müller MA, Corman VM, Al-Masri M, Hossain R, et al. Transmission of MERS-coronavirus in household contacts. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:828-35.
18. Park WB, Perera R, Choe PG, Lau E, Choi SJ, Chun JY, et al. Kinetics of serologic responses to MERS coronavirus infection in humans. South Korea Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:2186-9.
19. Lu LL, Suscovich TJ, Fortune SM, Alter G. Beyond binding: antibody efector functions in infectious diseases. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018;18:46.
20. Zohar T, Alter G. Dissecting antibody-mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020; 20:392-4.
21. Kanduc D. From Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immune responses to COVID-19 via molecular mimicry. Antibodies. 2020;9(3):33.
22. Lisyany NI. Covid-19 infection and autoimmune reactions. Fisiol Zh. 2022;68(1):87-92. [Ukrainian].
23. Nimmerjahn F, Ravetch JV. Fcgamma receptors as regulators of immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8:34-47.
24. Gavrilenko TI, Ryzhkova NO, Parkhomenko OM, Dovgan OV, Dovgan NV, Pasichnichenko OM, Babiy SM. Modern views on the role of neutrophils in the immune response. Fisiol Zh. 2021;67(3):75-86. [Ukrainian].
25. Reusch N, De Domenico E, Bonaguro L, SchulteSchrepping J, Baßler K, Schultze JL and Aschenbrenner AC Neutrophils in COVID-19. Front Immunol. 2021; 12:652470.