Українська English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2022; 68(1): 34-44


L.M. Samokhina1, V.V. Lomako2

  1. GD L.T. “Malaya National Institute of Therapy of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine,» Kharkiv, Ukraine
  2. Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine


The aim of the work is to study the efficiency of rhythmic cold exposures (RCEs; 5 ± 1°C, frequency 0.1 Hz, 65 min) on the activities of proteinases, nontrypsin-like proteinases (NTLP), tripsininhibitory activity (TIA) α-1-proteinase inhibitor (α-1-PI) and α-2-macroglobulin (α-2-MG) in blood serum, tissues of the brain and internal organs in male rats with alcohol-dependent hypertension (ADH) by highly sensitive (10-9 – 10-10 g) enzymatic methods. ADH was modelled by chronic (for 10 months) alcoholization of rats by the «two-bottle» method. It was noted that ADH decreases the proteinases activity in tissues, maximally in the lungs, kidneys and heart (by 6, 7 and 10 times, respectively). RCEs promotes the proteinases activation, it is most pronounced in blood serum, kidneys and liver (20, 8 and 5 times, respectively), in intact rats – in the lungs (5 times). ADH decrease the NTLP activity in the liver by 10 times and less in the kidneys, which may be due to a violation of protein biosynthesis, and in the blood serum and brain tissues it increases, in the cerebral cortex by 10 times. RCEs promotes the NTLP activation, at ADH by 2-4 times, in the intact rats by 10 or more times. The ADH decreased the α-2-MG activity, it is most pronounced in the hypothalamus, lungs, kidneys by 100 times and less in the heart. RCEs promotes the α-2-MG activation: at ADH below the control level, in the intact rats – in the brain tissues and kidneys, which may be due to the participation of syn- and catatoxical adaptive mechanisms. The α-1-PI activity decreases at ADH and the background of RCEs, which is associated with a shift in the balance in the proteinase-proteinase inhibitor system. Thus, RCEs lead to reverse changes caused by ADH in rats, promote activation of proteinases, NTLP, α-2-MG, which is associated with the functioning of regulatory systems of the body, the development of hormesis, the formation of high resistance to external and internal stressors, expanding adaptive capabilities. At the same time, low TIA α-1-IP promotes activation of proteinases, NTLP.

Keywords: rhythmic cold exposures; proteinase activity; nontrypsin-like proteinases; α-1-proteinase inhibitor; α-2- macroglobulin; alcohol-dependent hypertension.


  1. Śliwicka E, Cisoń T, Straburzyńska-Lupa A, PilaczyńskaSzcześniak Ł. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on 25-hydroxyvitamin D, irisin, myostatin, and interleukin-6 levels in healthy young men of different fitness levels. Sci Rep. 2020;10:61-75. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  2. Samokhina LM. Stress, hypertension and adaptation: enzymes of vasoconstriction and destruction under stress, hypo- and hypertension: rhythmic cold effects. Saarbrucken, Deutschland: LAP LAMBERT Acad Publ. 2015. [Russian].
  3. Ng HP, Jennings S Nelson S, Wang G. Short-chain alcohols upregulate GILZ gene expression and attenuate LPS-induced septic immune response. Front Immunol. 2020;11:53. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  4. Burgos CF, Muñoz B, Guzman JL, Aguayo LG. Ethanol effects on glycinergic transmission: from molecular pharmacology to behavior responses. Pharmacol Res. 2015;101:18-29. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  5. Xie J, Tian X-F, He S-G J, Wei Y-L, Peng B, Wu Z-Q. Evaluating the intoxicating degree of liquor products with combinations of fusel alcohols, acids, and esters. Molecules. 2018;23(6):12-39. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  6. Poznanski P, Lesniak A, Korostynski M, Szklarczyk K, Lazarczyk M, Religa P, Bujalska-Zadrozny M, Sadowski B, Sacharczuk M. Delta-opioid receptor antagonism leads to excessive ethanol consumption in mice with enhanced activity of the endogenous opioid system. Neuropharmacology. 2017;118:90-101. CrossRef PubMed
  7. Simplicio JA, do Vale GT, Gonzaga NA, Leite LN, Hipólito UV, Pereira CA, Tostes RC, Tirapelli CR. Reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidase play a role on ethanol-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in rat resistance arteries. J Physiol Biochem. 2017;73(1):5-16. CrossRef PubMed
  8. Ansari RA, Husain K, Rizvi SA. Role of transcription factors in steatohepatitis and hypertension after ethanol: the epicenter of metabolism. Biomolecules. 2016;6(3):E29. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  9. Bohan NA, Prokopieva VD, Ivanova SA, Vetlugina TP, Epimakhova EV, Plitnikov EV, Yarygina EG, Boiko AS. Oxidative stress and its correction in patients with alcohol dependence: results from research at the mental health research Institute of the Tomsk National Research Medical Center. Quest Narcology. 2018;163(3):27-59. [Russian].
  10. Kaliman PA, Samokhin AA, Samokhina LM. Proteinaseproteinase inhibitor system in rats under oxidative stress induced by the administration of cobalt chloride. Ukr. Biochem. J. 2000;72(1):89-92. [Russian].
  11. Siqueira AF, Vieira A, Ramos GVR, de Cássia Marqueti, de Fátima Salvini T, Puntel GO, Durigan JLQ. Multiple cryotherapy applications attenuate oxidative stress following skeletal muscle injury. Redox Rep. 2017;22(6):323-9. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  12. Samokhina LM, Starodub NF. Activity of proteinases and alfa-1-inhibitor proteinases at cold stress in rats. Ukr. Biochem. J. 1993;65(5):41-6. [Russian].
  13. Lomako VV, Samokhina LM, Somova KV. α-2-Macroglobulin Activity at Pothology (Depression, Alcoholism, Hipotension). Ukr J Med Biol Sport. 2016;1(1):178-81. [Russian]. CrossRef
  14. Shekh VE, Dubina GD, Shchyrova LS. Ethnic differences of the cardiovascular system and heart rate variability reactivity on cold stimulation in students from different geographic regions. Fiziol Zh. 2020;66(1):35-43. [Ukrainian]. CrossRef
  15. Gitto S, Golfieri L, Caputo F, Grandi S, Andreone P. Multidisciplinary view of alcohol use disorder: from a psychiatric illness to a major liver disease. Biomolecules. 2016;6(1):11. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  16. Massey VL, Beier JI, Ritzenthaler JD, Roman J, Arteel GE. Potential role of the gut. liver. lung axis in alcohol-induced tissue pathology. Biomolecules. 2015;5(4):2477-503. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  17. Moreau T, Brillard-Bourdet M, Bouhnik J, Gauthier F. Protein products of the rat kallikrein gene family. Substrate specificities of kallikrein rK2 (tonin) and kallikrein rK9. J Biol Chem. 1992;267(14):10045-51. CrossRef
  18. Inoue K, Nishimura H, Kubota J, Kawamura K. Alternative angiotensin II formation in rats arteries occurs only at very high concentrations of angiotensin I. Hypertension. 1999;34(3):525-30. CrossRef PubMed
  19. McEvoy LK, Fennema-Notestine C, Elman JA, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Hagler DJ, Hatton SN, Lyons MJ, Panizzon MS, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Alcohol intake and brain white matter in middle aged men: Microscopic and macroscopic differences. NeuroImage Clin. 2018;18:390-8. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  20. Vale do GT, Simplicio JA, Gonzaga NA, Yokota R, Ribeiro AA, Casarini DE, de Martinis BS, Tirapelli CR. Nebivolol prevents vascular oxidative stress and hypertension in rats chronically treated with ethanol. Atherosclerosis. 2018;274:67-76. CrossRef PubMed

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2024.