Українська Русский English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2019; 65(1): 57-65


V.V. Lomako, O.V. Shylo, I.F. Kovalenko

    Institute for problems of cryobiology and cryomedicine of the NAS of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine


Summary. The dynamics of the transformation of erythrocytes in young (6-7 months) and old (18-20 months) rats after the whole body cryostimulation (WBC) was studied by the method of low-angle light scattering. The specific ratios of discocytes, reversibly and irreversibly modified forms of the erythrocytes were used for their transformation indices calculation. The WBC (at a temperature -120 ºC, the duration was 90 sec and 3 sessions were conducted with an interval of 24 hs) was carried out in an experimental cryochamber designed for cooling of small laboratory animals. The number of discocytes, especially their flattened shapes (highly resistant to the factors of hemolysis) was higher (by 17.3 of normocytes and 43.5% of flattened forms) in the blood of control old rats. In the contrary, the number of altered forms of the erythrocytes (stomatocytes and spherocytes) was lower in the blood of old (by 38.4 and 23.5%, respectively) than in young rats. The indices of erythrocytes transformation were lower in old rats; especially of the index of reversibility transformation (more than 7 times). The direction and manifestation of changes of the erythrocyte population composition and transformation after the WBC were depended on the age, number of cryoexposures (1, 2 or 3) and the observation time (after a day or week). The WBC led to the higher heterogeneity of the erythrocytes population: the parts of reversibly and irreversibly altered cell forms increased in the blood. The indices of erythrocytes transformation decreased almost at all the stages of the experiment both in young and old rats.

Keywords: erythrocytes; whole body cryostimulation; age; rats


  1. Lombardi G, Ziemann E, Banfi G. Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Athletes: From Therapy to Stimulation. An Updated Review of the Literature. Front Physiol [Internet]. 2017 May 2 [cited 2017 Dec 09]; 8: Article 258. Available from: pmc. articles. PMC5411446. DOI: 10.3389. fphys. 2017.00258.
  3. Bleakley CM, Bieuzen F, Davison GW, Costello JT. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives. Open Access J Sports Med. 2014 Mar 10; 5: 25-36. DOI: 10.2147. OAJSM.S41655.
  5. Mawhinney C, Low DA, Jones H, Green DJ, Costello JT, Gregson W. Cold water mediates greater reductions in limb blood flow than whole body cryotherapy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017; 49(6): 1252-60. DOI: 10.1249. MSS.0000000000001223.
  7. Kepinska M, Gdula-Argasinska J, Dabrowski Z, Szarek M, Pilch W, Kreska-Korus A, Szygula Z. Fatty acids composition in erythrocyte membranes of athletes after one and after a series of whole body cryostimulation sessions. Cryobiololy. 2017 Feb; 74: 121-5. DOI: 10.1016. j. cryobiol.2016.11.005.
  9. Mohandas N, Gallagher PG. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future. Blood. 2008; 112(10): 3939-48. DOI:10.1182. blood-2008-07-161166.
  11. Novoderzhkhina YK, Shishkanova ZG, Kozinets IG. Configuration and surface of blood cells in norm and pathology. Moscow: Triad-farm; 2004. [Russian].
  13. Kozinets GI, Pogorelov VM, Shmarov DA, Boev SF, Sazonov VV. Blood cells and modern technologies for their analysis. Moscow: Triad-farm; 2002. [Russian].
  15. Babiichuk VG, Kozlov AV, Lomakin II, Babiichuk GA, inventors; Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine, assignee. Cryochamber for experimental cooling of laboratory animals. Patent of Ukraine N 40168. 2009 Mar 25. [Ukrainian].
  17. Gordiyenko OI, Gordiyenko YE, Makedonska VO. Estimation of erythrocyte population state by the spherical index distribution. Bioelectrochemistry. 2004 May; 62(2): 119-22. DOI: 10.1016. j.bioelechem.2003.08.004.
  19. Ryazantseva NV, Novitsky VV, Stepovaya EA, Tkachenko TN. Ultrastructure of erythrocytes in norm and in pathology: morphological phenomena, clinical aspects. Morphology. 2004; 126(5): 48-51. [Russian].
  21. Erken G, Erken HA, Bor-Kucukatay M, Kucukatay V, Genc O. The effects of in vivo and ex vivo various degrees of cold exposure on erythrocyte deformability and aggregation. Med Sci Monit. 2011 Aug; 17(8): 209-15. DOI: 10.12659. MSM.881899.
  23. Teległów A, Dąbrowski Z, Marchewka A, Tabarowski Z; Bilski J; Jaśkiewicz J; Gdula-Argasińska J; Głodzik J; Lizak D; Kępińska M. Effects of cold water swimming on blood rheological properties and composition of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of untrained older rats. Folia Biol. (Krakow). 2011; 59(3-4): 203-9. CrossRef  
  24. Gümüşlü S, Sarikçioğlu RB, Şahin E, Yargiçoğlu P, Ağar A. Influences of different stress models on the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in rat erythrocytes. Free Radic Res. 2002 Dec; 36(12):1277-82. DOI:10.1080. 1071576021000016508.
  26. Lomako VV, Shilo AV, Kovalenko IF, Babiichuk GA. Erythrocytes of hetero- and homoiothermic animals under natural and artificial hypothermia. J Evol Biochem Physiol. 2015; 51(1): 58-66. DOI: 10.1134. S0022093015010081.
  28. Lomako VV, Shilo AV, Kovalenko IF. Peripheral blood erythrocytes at various types of hypothermia of homoiothermal organism. Probl Cryobiol. 2012; 22(4): 398-409.
  30. Kulis A, Misiorek A, Marchewka J, Głodzik J, Teległów A, Dąbrowski Z, Marchewka A. Effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the rheological parameters of blood in older women with spondyloarthrosis. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2017; 66(3): 187-95. DOI: 10.3233. CH-160230.
  32. Neild PJ, Syndercombe-Court D, Keatinge WR, Donaldson GC, Mattock M, Caunce M. Cold-induced increases in erythrocyte count, plasma cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen of elderly people without a comparable rise in protein C or factor X. Clin Sci (Lond). 1994 Jan; 86(1): 43-8. CrossRef  
  33. Cuttell S, Hammond L, Langdon D, Costello J. Individualising the exposure of -110°C whole body cryotherapy: The effects of sex and body composition. J Therm Biol. 2017 Apr; 65: 41-7. DOI: 10.1016. j.jtherbio.2017.01.014.
  35. Shylo AV, Lutsenko DG, Ventskovska EA, Kovalenko IF, Babiychuk GA. Effect of different types of cold acclimation on osmotic fragility and sphericity index of rat erythrocytes. Ros. Fiziol. Zhurn. im. I.M. Sechenova. 2014; 100(1): 105-11. [Russian].
  37. Szygula Z, Lubkowska A, Giemza C, Skrzek A, Bryczkowska I, Dołęgowska B. Hematological parameters, and hematopoietic growth factors: EPO and IL-3 in response to whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) in military academy students. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2014 Apr 1 [sited 2016 April 10]; 9(4): e93096. Available from http:. plosone. article?id=10.1371. journal. pone.0093096 DOI: 10.1371. journal.pone.0093096.
  38.   Lombardi G, Lanteri P, Porcelli S, Mauri C, Colombini A, Grasso D. et al. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2013 Feb 1 [sited 2016 May 2]; 8(2). e55803. Available from: . plosone . article?id=10.1371 . journal.pone.0055803 DOI:10.1371 . journal.pone.0055803  
  39. Skrzep-Poloczek B, Romuk E, Wiśnowiska B., Owczarek AJ, Choręza P, Sieroń A, Birkner E, Stygar D. Effect of Whole-Body Cryotherapy on Antioxidant Systems in Experimental Rat Model. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017: 8158702. DOI: 10.1155. 2017. 8158702. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
  40.   Stanek A, Sieroń-Stołtny K, Romuk E, Cholewka A, Wielkoszyński T, Cieślar G, Kwiatek S, Sieroń A, Kawczyk-Krupka A. Whole-Body Cryostimulation as an Effective Method of Reducing Oxidative Stress in Healthy Men. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2016; 25(6): 1281-91. DOI: 10.17219. acem. 65980  
  41. Garkavi LK, Kvakina EB, Ukolova MA. Adaptive reactions and resistance of the organism. Rostov-on-Don; Rostov University Publishing; 1990. [Russian]. PubMed
  43. Pshennikova MG. The stress phenomenon. Emotional stress and its role in pathology. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 2000 Jul-Sep; (3): 20-6. [Russian]. PubMed

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2020.