REACTIONS OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN RESPONSE TO VISUAL LOAD
M.L. Kochina1, S.I. Danylchenko1, A.V. Yavorskyi2, N.M. Maslova2, S.N. Lad2
- Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University, Ukraine
- Kharkov National Medical University, Ukraine
The paper presents the results of studying the influence of the quality of visual load on the state of visual system of 97 children and adolescents aged from 6 to 15. To identify the
features of the visual system functional response to the visual
load in children and adolescents, their results were compared
with the results of 88 young people (20-22 years old). Participants
of different age groups performed test tasks with different
registration parameters (10 and 7 typographical points)
during 45 minutes. The task was to find and delete a given
letter. Participants of the first age group (6-10 years old) had
significantly lower functional possibilities of visual perception
in the distance than that of the second (11-12 years old)
and the third (13-15 years old) groups, where the functional
indices were close by the values. The study of the visual system
parameter changes under the influence of the visual load
with different design parameters allowed establishing that the
first visual load led to increasing the accommodation reserves
by 60% in the first and second age groups and by 66% in the
third group. After the second load, the number of people in the
second and third age groups whose accommodation reserves
reduced within increasing the distance from the eyes of the
nearest points of clear vision and convergence. The latter is
characteristic for the development of visual fatigue. Analysis
of the configuration connections in the factor structures of
the visual system indicators showed that there were still no
permanent specialized mechanisms of visual perception at
close distance in the first and second age groups. A temporary
adaptation of the myopic type under the influence of a visual
load occurred. If it is prolonged, it can lead to the formation
and progress of myopia. The work with the first visual load
led to an increase of the number of significant connections
in the investigated system from 7 to 9. The work with the
second load increased this number to 10, which indicated its
significant strain. In the factor structures constructed by using
the visual system indicators of the third age group participants
we identified a factor, the structure of the bonds in which is
the prototype of a specialized mechanism for perceiving visual
information at close distance. The first load (with normal
design parameters) did not lead to a significant change in the
structure of the bonds between the indices. This indicates the
presence of a stereotype of the reaction providing visual work
at close distance. The second load caused significant changes
in the structure of bonds. The number of bonds in the system
also increased from 7 to 10, which indicated its considerable
strain. In the group of young people who worked only with
the second load, we revealed a clear separation of indicators,
which ensured the perception of objects at different distances
from the eyes. This fact was not the case for children and
adolescents. The bonds configurations in the investigated
system, and the contribution of factors to the overall dispersion
after the visual load, have practically not changed. The latter
confirms the presence of the formed separate mechanisms of
visual perception for close and long distance.
visual system; visual load; factor structures; visual fatigue; transient myopia
- Golubchikov MV, Rykov SO, Vitovs'ka OP, Kolomiychuk VM, Dubinina TYu, Barinov YuV, et al. Ophthalmic Care in Ukraine from 2005 to 2014. Analyt Statist Guide. Kyiv, 2015. [Ukrainian].
- Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Jones LA, Zadnik K. Parental myopia, near work, school achievement, and children's refractive error. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002; 43(12): 3633-40.
- Kempen JH, Mitchell P, Lee KE, Tielsch JM, Broman AT, Taylor HR, et al. The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004; 122(4): 495-505.
- Fan DSP, Lam DS, Lam RF, Lau JTF, Chong KS, Cheung EYY, et al. Prevalence, incidence, and progression of myopia of school children in Hong Kong. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004; 45(4): 1071-5.
- Srinivas C. Epidemiological Study of Myopia. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. Boston, 2000: 26-33.
- Zbitneva SV. Detection of Reduced Visual Acuity during Prophylactic Examinations of Children. East Eur J Publ Health. 2012; 2/3: 127-33. [Ukrainian].
- Rykov SO, Cheremukhina OM. Optimization of Ophthalmic Preventive care for Children in Ukraine. Medical and Social problems of the Prevention for the Children's Community in the Framework of the WHO Program "Eyesight 2020": conference materials and lectures. Kyiv, 2012: 159-61. [Ukrainian].
- Kochina ML, Yavorskyi AV, Maslova NM. Visually Aggressive Environment of the Child and "School Myopia". Hygiene Inhab Plac. 2001; 38(2): 355-7. [Russian].
- Kochina ML, Podrygalo LV, Yavorskyi AV, Maslova NM. Ophthalmic Aspects of the Visual Environment of a Modern Man. J Ophthalmol. 2001; 6: 56-9. [Russian].
- Kochina ML, Yavorskyi AV. The Concept of the Children and Adolescents Visual System Formation under the Influence of Visual Loading. Bull Probl Biol Med. 2013; 3(2): 170-5. [Russian].
- Pol'ka NS, Yatskovskaya NYa, Dzhurynska SM, Platonova AG. Hygienic Assessment of the Visual Environment of Elementary School Children. Environment&Health. 2010; 3: 55-7. [Ukrainian].
- Kochina ML, Yavorskyi AV, Lad SN, Yevtushenko AS. Age Peculiarities of Functional Organization of the System for Obtaining and Initial Processing of Visual Information. Clin Informatics Telemedicine. 2013; 10(9): 136-40. [Russian].
- Yavorskyi AV. Analysis of the Formation Features of a Functional System for Receiving and Initial Processing of Visual Information. Cybernet Comp Engineering. 2012; 170: 28-40. [Russian].
- Avetisov ES. Myopia. Moscow: Medicine, 1999. [Russian].
- Avetisov ES. Friendly Strabismus. Moscow: Medicine, 1977. [Russian].
- Kogan AI. The Role of Compensation in the Formation and Operation of the Sensory-motor Apparatus of the Binocular Visual System. Mechanisms for the Identification of Visual Images: a collection of articles; under the editorship of VD Glezer. Leningrad: Sci;1967:61-76. [Russian].
- Veselovskaya NN, Zherebko IB. Assessment of functional changes tear production under the action of the eye drops on the base of natural molecule of estoine and artificial tears in patients with dry eye syndrome on the background of endocrine ophthalmopathy. Fiziol Zh. 2016;62 (6):118-21.
- Shamshinova AM, Volkov VV. Functional Methods of Research in Ophthalmology. Moscow: Med, 1998. [Russian].
- Somov EE. Introduction to Clinical Ophthalmology. StPetersburg, 1991. [Russian].
- Shamshinova AM Yakovlev AA, Romanova EV, editors. Clinical Physiology of Vision. M: PBOYUL «TM Andreeva», 2002. [Russian].
- Vasil'eva NN. Binocular visual system of a growing organism: monograph. Cheboksary: Chuvash gos ped un-t, 2011. [Russian].
- Maslova NM. Dynamics of Functional Indicators of the Visual System of Children and Adolescents in the Process of Studying at School [dissertation]. Donetsk: Donetsk State Medical University; 2005. [Ukrainian].
- Patent 43719AUkraine, MPK A 61 V 10/00. The Method of Diagnosing the Information Load of Printed Publications for Children and Adolescents / Kryvonosov MV, Podrygalo LV, Kochina ML, Yavorskyi AV, Maslova NM. (UA); Applicant and patent holder Kharkiv National Medical University Ukraine (UA). ? 2001063812; applied 06.06.01; published 17.12.01. Bulletin ?11. [Ukrainian].
- Shapovalov SL, Aleksandrov AS. Materials to the Problem of Visual Fatigue in the Operators of Video Display Terminals. Moscow: GKVG im akad NN Burdenko, 1999. [Russian].
- Somov EE. Methods of ophthalmoergonomics. AN USSR, Department of Physiology. Leningrad: Science, 1989. [Russian].