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ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fz

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2018; 64(5): 77-87


REACTIONS OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN RESPONSE TO VISUAL LOAD

M.L. Kochina1, S.I. Danylchenko1, A.V. Yavorskyi2, N.M. Maslova2, S.N. Lad2

  1. Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University, Ukraine
  2. Kharkov National Medical University, Ukraine
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fz64.05.077

Abstract

The paper presents the results of studying the influence of the quality of visual load on the state of visual system of 97 children and adolescents aged from 6 to 15. To identify the features of the visual system functional response to the visual load in children and adolescents, their results were compared with the results of 88 young people (20-22 years old). Participants of different age groups performed test tasks with different registration parameters (10 and 7 typographical points) during 45 minutes. The task was to find and delete a given letter. Participants of the first age group (6-10 years old) had significantly lower functional possibilities of visual perception in the distance than that of the second (11-12 years old) and the third (13-15 years old) groups, where the functional indices were close by the values. The study of the visual system parameter changes under the influence of the visual load with different design parameters allowed establishing that the first visual load led to increasing the accommodation reserves by 60% in the first and second age groups and by 66% in the third group. After the second load, the number of people in the second and third age groups whose accommodation reserves reduced within increasing the distance from the eyes of the nearest points of clear vision and convergence. The latter is characteristic for the development of visual fatigue. Analysis of the configuration connections in the factor structures of the visual system indicators showed that there were still no permanent specialized mechanisms of visual perception at close distance in the first and second age groups. A temporary adaptation of the myopic type under the influence of a visual load occurred. If it is prolonged, it can lead to the formation and progress of myopia. The work with the first visual load led to an increase of the number of significant connections in the investigated system from 7 to 9. The work with the second load increased this number to 10, which indicated its significant strain. In the factor structures constructed by using the visual system indicators of the third age group participants we identified a factor, the structure of the bonds in which is the prototype of a specialized mechanism for perceiving visual information at close distance. The first load (with normal design parameters) did not lead to a significant change in the structure of the bonds between the indices. This indicates the presence of a stereotype of the reaction providing visual work at close distance. The second load caused significant changes in the structure of bonds. The number of bonds in the system also increased from 7 to 10, which indicated its considerable strain. In the group of young people who worked only with the second load, we revealed a clear separation of indicators, which ensured the perception of objects at different distances from the eyes. This fact was not the case for children and adolescents. The bonds configurations in the investigated system, and the contribution of factors to the overall dispersion after the visual load, have practically not changed. The latter confirms the presence of the formed separate mechanisms of visual perception for close and long distance.

Keywords: visual system; visual load; factor structures; visual fatigue; transient myopia

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