Українська Русский English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fz

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2017; 63(3): 58-67


THE CONCEPT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SUPERSYSTEMS: A NEW STAGE OF INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY

R.D. Grygoryan1, V.F. Sagach2

  1. Cybernetics center of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
  2. O.O.Bogomolets Institute of Physiology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fz63.03.058

Abstract

other diseases of complex etiology, remains unknown, and their palliative treatments are limited to the fight against the symptoms. Despite the specific pathogenesis of every disease, AH is a convenient model for the analysis of common underlying causes of these diseases. It is known that the concept of neurohumoral control of cardiovascular system mainly describes the hemodynamics and does not integrate additional mechanisms optimizing cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the modern concepts of integrative physiology (IP) are based only on the functioning of the system of organs. Meanwhile, a large amount of data ensures that there exist specific metabolites of a mystery functional role on the scale of the body. In our view, it is time for IP’s new concepts able to both cover the full range of facts and show the term for breaking of the deadlock problems of AH. The purpose of the article is to determine both the actual conceptual problems of theoretical / applied IP, and ways for radical treatment of AH. The research methodology of IP and traditional concepts of AH are subjects of the analysis. It is argued that the focus of research should be focused on physiological supersystems (PSS), integrating mechanisms of cellular physiology with mechanisms of organs systems. The organizational complexity of every PSS is the main problem of its experimental identification, thus computer simulations are proposed for enhancing of the empirical methods. The problems arising when the researcher will use this combination, are illustrated by the analysis of an energy PSS. It exists in the form of a battery of mechanisms, each with its values of power and speed, and supports the synthesis of ATP in mitochondria. It is shown that even this partial PSS does display situational responses to various scenarios of ATP deficiency in the body. Conclusion: To overcome the current challenges of IP, researchers need to create the concept of multilevel PSS and develop adequate methods of their study. Perhaps the partial PSS, activating against the lack of ATP in the cells, will become a platform for developing common methodology for study of the general class of multilevel PSS.

Keywords: cell, mitochondrial biogenesis, functional systems, formal analysis, model simulator.

References

  1. Grygoryan RD, Lyabakh KG. Arterial pressure: a comprehension. Kiev: Akademperiodika, 2015. [Russian]. PubMed
  2.  
  3. Grygoryan RD. The paradigm of "floating" arterial pressure. Düsseldorf: Palmarium Academic Publishing. 2016. [Russian].
  4.  
  5. Chobanian AV. The hypertension paradox: more uncontrolled disease despite improved therapy. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 878–87. CrossRef PubMed
  6.  
  7. Cowley AW, Jr. Long-term control of arterial blood pressure. Physiol Rev. 1992; 72: 231–300. PubMed
  8.  
  9. Farag E, Maheshwari K, Morgan J, Sakr Esa WA, Doyle DJ. An update of the role of renin angiotensin in cardiovascular homeostasis. Anesth Analg. 2015; 120 (2):275–92. CrossRef PubMed
  10.  
  11. Dampney RA, Coleman MJ, Fontes MA. Central mechanisms underlying short- and long-term regulation of the cardiovascular system. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2002; 29: 261–8. CrossRef PubMed
  12.  
  13. Guyton AC. Blood pressure control - special role of the kidneys and body fluids. Science. 1991; 252: 1813–6. CrossRef PubMed
  14.  
  15. Grygoryan RD. The biodynamics and models of energy stress. Kiev:Akademperiodika, 2009. [Russian].
  16.  
  17. Grygoryan RD. The Energy basis of reversible adaptation. N.Y.: Nova Science, 2012: 254 p.
  18.  
  19. Coote JH. Landmarks in understanding the central nervous control of the cardiovascular system. Exp Physiol. 2006; 92: 3–18. CrossRef PubMed
  20.  
  21. Cowley AW Jr. Renal medullary oxidative stress, pressurenatriuresis, and hypertension. Hypertension. 2008; 52: 777–86. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  22.  
  23. De Mello WC, Frohlich ED. On the local cardiac renin angiotensin system. Basic and clinical implications. Peptides. 2011;32:1774–9. CrossRef PubMed
  24.  
  25. Hall JE, Brands MW, Henegar JR. Angiotensin II and long-term arterial pressure regulation: the overriding dominance of the kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999; 10(12): S258–S265. PubMed
  26.  
  27. Malpas SC. Sympathetic Nervous System Overactivity and Its Role in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease. Physiol Rev. 2010; 90 (2); 513–57. CrossRef PubMed
  28.  
  29. Hamm LL, Hering-Smith KS. Pivotal role of the kidney in hypertension. Am J Med Sci. 2010;340:30–2. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  30.  
  31. Rhian TM. New insights into mechanisms of hypertension. Cur Opin Nephrol & Hypertens. 2012; 21(2):119–21. CrossRef PubMed
  32.  
  33. Dhingra H, Roongsritong C, Kurtzman NA. Brain natriuretic peptide: role in cardiovascular and volume homeostasis. Semin Nephrol. 2002;22: 423–37. CrossRef PubMed
  34.  
  35. Montani J-P, Van Vliet BN. Understanding the contribution of Guyton's large circulatory model to long-term control of arterial pressure. Exp Physiol. 2009; 94:382–8. CrossRef PubMed
  36.  
  37. Lohmeier TE. Interactions between ANG II and baroreflexes in long-term regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity. Circ Res. 2003;92:1282–4. CrossRef PubMed
  38.  
  39. Dhaun N, Goddart J, Webb D. The endothelin system and its antagonism in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(4):943–55. CrossRef PubMed
  40.  
  41. Flögel U., Fago A., Rassaf T. Keeping the heart in balance: the functional interactions of myoglobin with nitrogen oxides. J Exp Biol. 2010. 213, P.2726-33. CrossRef PubMed
  42.  
  43. Sagach VF, Shimanska TV, Nadtochiy CN. Fiziol Zh. 2000;46(2): 33–40. [Ukrainian].
  44.  
  45. Tipoe GL, Lau TY, Nanji AA, Fung ML. Expression and functions of vasoactive substances regulated by hypoxiainducible factor-1 in chronic hypoxemia. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med. Chem. 2006; 4(3):199–218. CrossRef PubMed
  46.  
  47. Crampin EJ, Halstead M, Hunter P, Nielsen P, Noble D, Smith N, Tawhai M. Computational physiology and the physiome project. Physiology. 2005; 20:316–25.
  48.  
  49. Ferrari AU. Modifications of the cardiovascular system with aging. Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 2002;11(1):30–3. CrossRef PubMed
  50.  
  51. Hardie DG, Ashford ML. AMPK: regulating energy balance at the cellular and whole body level. Physiology (Bethesda). 2014;29(2):99–107. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  52.  
  53. Liesa M, Palacín M, Zorzano A. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Mammalian Health and Disease. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:799–845. CrossRef PubMed
  54.  
  55. Grygoryan RD, Deriev II, Aksionova TV, Lissov AN. Medical-physiological software simulators: the necessity and problems. Problems in programming. 2014;(2- 3):197-204. [Russian].
  56.  

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2019.