Українська Русский English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2016; 62(6): 72-80


K.V. Rosova1, T.V. Bolgova1, K.R. Tymoshenko1, Ju.D. Vinnichuck2, L.M. Gunina2, V.V. Bezugla2

  1. O.O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
  2. Scientific Institute of the National University of Physical Education and Sport of Ukraine, Kyiv


We studied some specific features of the changes in morpho- and stereometric characteristics of the ultrastructure of tissues of lungs, heart, and muscles, their capillarization, and the mitochondrial apparatus of cells in adult male Wistar rats under long-term physical loads. It is shown that the influence of a sustained training accompanied by the development of exercise-induced hypoxia on the structural readjustments of tissues of muscles, lungs, and myocardium can be conditionally divided into 2 groups: with destructive and compensatoryadaptive features. The changes with destructive character include, firstly, those of the ultrastructure of biological barriers such as, in particular, hyperhydration of barriers on the whole and their separate layers, which deteriorates the conditions of oxygen diffusion; second, the destructive changes in mitochondria (it increased the number of damaged lung organelles by 4.1 times, in the heart - at 4.5-5.5 times depending on subpopulations and in muscle – by 3.5-12.2 times also depending on the subpopulation of mitochondria), which are accompanied by a decrease in the energy potential of the mitochondrial apparatus, are observed. To the changes with compensatory-adaptive character, we refer an increase in the number of functioning capillaries (by 80% in the gastrocnemius muscle and by 60% in the myocardium), which prevents the development of secondary tissue hypoxia; intensification of pinocytosis in endotheliocytes; activation of mitochondrial morphogenesis, which was accompanied by an increase of the number of organelles at gastrocnemius muscle by 65%, in the lungs – in 4 times and in heart by 60-80% depending on the mitochondrial subpopulations; and appearance of young mitochondria and mitochondria with moderate degree of swelling, which favors the growth of the energy power of the mitochondrial apparatus of cells.

Keywords: Key words: physical load; hypoxia training; mitochondrial morphogenesis; functioning capillaries; lung; myocardium; muscle tissue.


  1. KolchinskaAZ, CiganovaTN, Ostapenko LA. Normobaric interval hypoxic training in medicine and sport. Moskov: Medicine; 2003. [Russian].
  3. Mechanisms of development and compensation hemic hypoxia. SeredenkoMM, editor. Kiev: Naukova Dumka; 1987. [Rusian].
  5. Mankovska IM, GavenauskasBL, NosarBI, NasarenkoAI, Rosova KV, Bratus LV. Mechanisms of muscle tissue adaptation to exercise-induced hypoxia in interval hypoxic hypoxia conditions. Sport Med. 2005;1:3-11. [Ukrainian].
  7. Platonov BN. System of training athletes in Olympic sports. General theory and its practical application. Kiev: Olimpic Literature; 2015. [Russian].
  9. Calbet J, Losa-Reyna J, Torres-Peralta R, Rasmussen P, Ponce-González J, Sheel A, et al. Limitations to oxygen transport and utilization during sprint exercise in humans: evidence for a functional reserve in muscle O2 diffusing capacity. J Physiol. 2015;593(20):4649-64. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  11. Pastukhova VA, Gunina LM, Lukyanceva GV. The experimental investigation of ultrastructural changes calf muscle under physical training. Visnyk Zaporizhzhya National University. Part Physical education and sport. 2012;Issue 2(8):255-62. [Ukrainian].
  13. LukyanovaLD. Molecular mechanisms of tissue hypoxia and organism adaptation. Fiziol Zh. 2003;49(3):17-35. [Russian].
  15. Metaxas T, Mandroukas A, Vamvakoudis E, Kotoglou K, Ekblom B, Mandroukas K. Muscle fiber characteristics, satellite cells and soccer performance in young athletes. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(3):493-501.
  17. Millet G, Roels B, Schmitt L, Woorons X, Richalet J. Combining hypoxic methods for peak performance. Sports Med. 2010;40(1):1-25. doi: 10.2165/11317920- 000000000-00000.
  19. Breen E, Tang K, Olfert M, Knapp A, Wagner P. Skeletal muscle capillarity during hypoxia: VEGF and its activation. High Alt Med Biol. 2008;9(2):158-66. doi: 10.1089/ ham.2008.1010.
  21. Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of sport and exercise. Kiev: Olympic Literature, 1997. [Russian].
  23. Kramer K, Dijkstra H, Bast A. Control of physical exercise of rats in a swimming basin. Physiol Behav.1993;53(2):271-6. CrossRef  
  24. Filippov MM. The process of mass transfer of respiratory gases during muscle activity. The degree of hypoxia load: The secondary tissue hypoxia. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1983; 197-216. [Russian].
  26. Emelyanov NA. Measuring the gas release or absorption of volumetric method using a Warburg apparatus. Ukr. Biokhim. Zhur. 1971;43(3):390-2. [Russian].
  28. Karupu B. Electron microscopy. Kiev: Vishcha shkola; 1982. [Russian].
  30. Hoppler H, Vogt M. Muscle tissue adaptation to hypoxia. J Experim Biol. 2001;18:3133-9.
  32. Yang C, Mora S, Ryder J, Coker K, Hansen P, Allen L, et al. VAMP3 null mice display normal constitutive, insulinand exercise-regulated vesicle trafficking. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21(5):1573-80. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  34. Pokotylo PB. Ultrastructural study of the cardiomyocytes mitochondrial apparatus of the intact rat. World of medicine and biology. 2014;21(5):148-51. [Ukrainian].
  36. Salyutin RV, Palianytsia SS, Sokolov MF, Sirman VM, Lobynceva GS. Histological structure of muscular tissue and ultrastructural description of endotheliocytes capillaries by experimental ischemia. Exp. clin. med. 2013;1(58):86-90. [Ukrainian].
  38. Williams K, Pannirselvam R, Derksen F, de FeijterRupp H, Steel C, Robinson N. Regional pulmonary veno-occlusion: a newly identified lesion of equine exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Vet Pathol. 2008;45(3):316-26. doi: 10.1354/vp.45-3-316. CrossRef  
  39. Berezovsky BA, Yanko RV, Chaka EG, Litovka IG. The influence interval hypo- and hyperoxia on the condition respirator part of lung. Pulmonologia. 2013;2:57-60. [Russian].
  41. Sudarikova YuV, Bakeeva LE, Ciplenkova VG. Destructive changes in mitochondria of human cardiomyocytes in alcoholic heart damage. Arkh. Patol. 1999:9;19-23. [Russian].
  43. Zagoruiko GE. The restructuring of myocardium stroma during adaptation to tissue hypoxia and kraniocerebral hypothermia. Kriobiologia. 1990;2:3-10. [Russian].
  45. Ryamova KA, Rosenfeld AS. Features of mitochondrial respiration in hypoxia and acidosis Bull. South Ural St. Univ. Ser.: Educ., healthcare serv., physic. educ. 2008;16:31-5. [Russian].
  47. Tashke K. Introduction to quantitative cytohistological morphology. Bucharest: Akademiya;1980. [Russian].
  49. Agarwal B, Dash R, Stowe D, Bosnjak Z, Camara A. Isoflurane modulates cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetics by selectively attenuating respiratory complexes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1837(3):354-65. doi: 10.1016/j. bbabio.2013.11.006.

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2019.