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ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fz

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2016; 62(6): 72-80


RESTRUCTURING OF SKELETAL MUSCLE, LUNG AND HEART TISSUES OF RATS UNDER HYPOXIA TRAINING

K.V. Rosova1, T.V. Bolgova1, K.R. Tymoshenko1, Ju.D. Vinnichuck2, L.M. Gunina2, V.V. Bezugla2

  1. O.O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
  2. Scientific Institute of the National University of Physical Education and Sport of Ukraine, Kyiv
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fz62.06.072

Abstract

We studied some specific features of the changes in morpho- and stereometric characteristics of the ultrastructure of tissues of lungs, heart, and muscles, their capillarization, and the mitochondrial apparatus of cells in adult male Wistar rats under long-term physical loads. It is shown that the influence of a sustained training accompanied by the development of exercise-induced hypoxia on the structural readjustments of tissues of muscles, lungs, and myocardium can be conditionally divided into 2 groups: with destructive and compensatoryadaptive features. The changes with destructive character include, firstly, those of the ultrastructure of biological barriers such as, in particular, hyperhydration of barriers on the whole and their separate layers, which deteriorates the conditions of oxygen diffusion; second, the destructive changes in mitochondria (it increased the number of damaged lung organelles by 4.1 times, in the heart - at 4.5-5.5 times depending on subpopulations and in muscle – by 3.5-12.2 times also depending on the subpopulation of mitochondria), which are accompanied by a decrease in the energy potential of the mitochondrial apparatus, are observed. To the changes with compensatory-adaptive character, we refer an increase in the number of functioning capillaries (by 80% in the gastrocnemius muscle and by 60% in the myocardium), which prevents the development of secondary tissue hypoxia; intensification of pinocytosis in endotheliocytes; activation of mitochondrial morphogenesis, which was accompanied by an increase of the number of organelles at gastrocnemius muscle by 65%, in the lungs – in 4 times and in heart by 60-80% depending on the mitochondrial subpopulations; and appearance of young mitochondria and mitochondria with moderate degree of swelling, which favors the growth of the energy power of the mitochondrial apparatus of cells.

Keywords: Key words: physical load; hypoxia training; mitochondrial morphogenesis; functioning capillaries; lung; myocardium; muscle tissue.

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