RESTRUCTURING OF SKELETAL MUSCLE, LUNG AND HEART TISSUES OF RATS UNDER HYPOXIA TRAINING
K.V. Rosova1, T.V. Bolgova1, K.R. Tymoshenko1, Ju.D. Vinnichuck2, L.M. Gunina2, V.V. Bezugla2
- O.O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv;
- Scientific Institute of the National University of Physical
Education and Sport of Ukraine, Kyiv
We studied some specific features of the changes in morpho-
and stereometric characteristics of the ultrastructure of
tissues of lungs, heart, and muscles, their capillarization, and
the mitochondrial apparatus of cells in adult male Wistar rats
under long-term physical loads. It is shown that the influence
of a sustained training accompanied by the development of
exercise-induced hypoxia on the structural readjustments of
tissues of muscles, lungs, and myocardium can be conditionally
divided into 2 groups: with destructive and compensatoryadaptive
features. The changes with destructive character
include, firstly, those of the ultrastructure of biological barriers
such as, in particular, hyperhydration of barriers on the
whole and their separate layers, which deteriorates the conditions
of oxygen diffusion; second, the destructive changes
in mitochondria (it increased the number of damaged lung
organelles by 4.1 times, in the heart - at 4.5-5.5 times depending
on subpopulations and in muscle – by 3.5-12.2 times also
depending on the subpopulation of mitochondria), which are
accompanied by a decrease in the energy potential of the
mitochondrial apparatus, are observed. To the changes with
compensatory-adaptive character, we refer an increase in the
number of functioning capillaries (by 80% in the gastrocnemius
muscle and by 60% in the myocardium), which prevents
the development of secondary tissue hypoxia; intensification
of pinocytosis in endotheliocytes; activation of mitochondrial
morphogenesis, which was accompanied by an increase of
the number of organelles at gastrocnemius muscle by 65%, in
the lungs – in 4 times and in heart by 60-80% depending on
the mitochondrial subpopulations; and appearance of young
mitochondria and mitochondria with moderate degree of
swelling, which favors the growth of the energy power of the
mitochondrial apparatus of cells.
Key words: physical load; hypoxia training; mitochondrial morphogenesis; functioning capillaries; lung; myocardium; muscle tissue.
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