Українська English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2014; 60(1): 3-10

Characteristics of quantal release of glutamate and GABA in synapses between retinal ganglion cells and superior colliculus neurons in coculture

Dumans'ka HV, Rykhal's'kyĭ OV, Veselovs'kyĭ MS.

    O.O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine


We investigated features of quantal release of glutamate and GABA in synapses between retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and superior colliculus (SC) neurons in coculture using dual patch-clamp technique. The main quantal characteristics of neurotransmitters release were de%ned on the basic of quantal analysis. Number of released quanta distributions for both neurotransmitters were corresponded to the binomial law. It was shown that evoked postsynaptic currents (PSC) in SC neurons as response to generation of action potential (AP) in RGC were mediated by simultaneous release at least from 2 to 14 quanta of glutamate and 2 quanta of GABA. Thereby high ef%cacy of excitatory and inhibitory signals transmission is guaranteed in retinocollicular projections. It is supposed that multiquantal character of the neurotransmitters release can be related to simultaneous involvement of several closely adjacent excited terminals, each of which possesses one active zone, or by one terminal with several.

Keywords: ganglion cells of the retina, neurons superior colliculus, synaptic transmission, simple binoculars, quantum distribution, quantum analysis.


  1. Dumanska GV, Kosheleva SO, Veselosky MS. Chemi-cal transmission between cocultivated ratinal ganglion cells and superior colliculus neurons. Neurophysiology 2011;43(4):369-371.
  3. Veselovsky NS, Fedulova SA, Kostyuk PG. Biophysics of a single synapse. Kiev: Naukova Dumka; 2004. P. 7-14.
  5. Rusakov DA. Statistical estimation of the membrane area and numbers of active sites at presynaptic terminals. Neurophysiology 1990;22(1):29-36. CrossRef PubMed
  7. Chandrasekaran HR, Plas DT, Gonzales E, Crair MC. Evidence for an instructive role of retinal activity in retinotopic map re%nement in the superior colliculus of the mouse. J. Neurosci. 2005;25:6929-6938. CrossRef PubMed
  9. Chandrasekaran AR, Shah RD, Crair MC. Developmental homeostasis of mouse retinocollicular synapses. J. of Neurosci. 2007;27(7):1746-1755. CrossRef PubMed
  11. Del Castillo J, Katz B. Quantal components of the end plate potential. J. Physiol. 1954;124:560-573. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  13. Jonas P, Bischofberger J, Sandkuhler J. Corelease of two fast neurotransmitters at central synapse. Science 1998;281(5375):419–424. CrossRef PubMed
  15. Juttner R, Henneberger C, Grantyn R, Rothe T. Early onset of glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activ-ity in the visual layers of the rodent superior colliculus. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2001;19:255-261. CrossRef  
  16. Katz B. Quantal mechanism of neural transmitter release. Science 1971;173:123-126. CrossRef PubMed
  18. Mayer ML, Westbrook GL, Guthrie PB. Voltage-depended block by Mg2+ of NMDA responses in spinal cord neurons. Nature 1984;309:261-263. CrossRef PubMed
  20. Mize RR. Variations in the retinal synapses o the cat superior olliculus revealed using quantative electron microscope autoradiography. Brain Research. 1983;269:211-221. CrossRef  
  21. Mrsic-Flogel TD, Hofer SB, Creutzfeldt C, Cloez-Tayarani I, Changeux JP, Bonhoeffer T, Hubener M. Altered map of visual space in the superior colliculus of mice lacking early retinal waves. J. Neurosci 2005; 25(29):6921-6928. CrossRef PubMed
  23. Redman, S. Quantal analysis of synaptic potentials in neurons of the central nervous system. Physiol. Rev. 1990;70:165-198. CrossRef PubMed
  25. Sabatini BL, Regehr WG. Timing of neurotransmission at fast synapses in the mammalian brain. Nature 1996;384(14):170-172. CrossRef PubMed
  27. Shah RD, Crair MC. Retinocollicular synapse maturation and plasticity are regulated by correlated retinal waves. J Neurosci. 2008;28(1):292-303. CrossRef PubMed
  29. Simon DK, O'Leary DD. Development of topographic order in the mammalian retinocollicular projection. J. Neurosci. 1992;12:1212-1232. CrossRef  
  30. Voronin LL. Quantal analysis of thhippocampal long-term potentiation. Rev. Neurosci. 1994;5:141-170. CrossRef PubMed
  32. Vidal-Sanz M, Bray GM, Aguayo AJ. Regenerated synapses persist in the superior colliculus after the regrowth of retinal ganglion cell axons. J. of Neurocytol. 1991;20:940-952. CrossRef  
  33. Zhao JP, Phillips MA, Constantine-Paton M. Long-term potentiation in the juvenile superior colliculus requires simultaneous activation of NMDA receptors and L-type Ca2+ channels and reflects addition of newly functional synapses. J Neurosci. 2006;26(49):12647-55. CrossRef PubMed

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2024.