Українська English

ISSN 2522-9028 (Print)
ISSN 2522-9036 (Online)

Fiziologichnyi Zhurnal

is a scientific journal issued by the

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Editor-in-chief: V.F. Sagach

The journal was founded in 1955 as
1955 – 1977 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0015 – 3311)
1978 – 1993 "Fiziologicheskii zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
1994 – 2016 "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 0201 – 8489)
2017 – "Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal" (ISSN 2522-9028)

Fiziol. Zh. 2013; 59(2): 71-84

Influence of physical training under conditions of 120-day simulated microgravity on contractile properties and musculo-tendinous stiffness of the triceps surae muscle

Koriak IuA

    State science Ceneter of Russia, Institute of Medical Biological Problems, RAS, Moscow, Russia


The effect of a 120-day -5 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest with countermeasures (physical training) on the mechanical properties of the human triceps surae muscle was studied in four healthy young women aged 28.0. The results showed that the contractile properties of the skeletal muscle studied changed considerably. After HDT without countermeasures the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) had decreased by 36% (P < 0.05), and the electrically evoked tetanic tension at 150 Hz (P) and isometric twitch contraction (P(t)) had decreased by 24% (P < 0.05) and 12 % (P < 0.05), respectively. Time-to-peak tension (TPT) of the twitch had significantly increased by 14% (P < 0.05), but half-relaxation time (1/2 RT), and total contraction time (TCT) had decreased by 19% (P < 0.05) and 18% (P < 0.05), respectively. The difference between P(o) and MVC expressed as a percentage of P(o) and referred to as force deficiency (P(d)), was also calculated. The P(d) had increased by 40% (P < 0.001). The rate of increase of voluntary contractions calculated according to a relative scale had significantly reduced, but for the electrically evoked contraction no substantial changes were observed. After HDT with countermeasures TPT, 1/2 RT and TCT had decreased by 4%, 7%, 19%, respectively in relation to the control condition. Training had caused a decrease of 3% (P > 0.05) in MVC, and P(t) and in P(o) of 14%, and of 9% (P > 0.05), respectively. The Pd had decreased significantly by 10% (P < 0.05). The rate of increase of electrically evoked tetanic tension did not change significantly during HDT with countermeasures but the rate of increase in isometric voluntary tension development was increased. Physical training provided a reserve of neuromuscular function, which attenuated the effect of bed rest. The experimental findings indicated that neural as well as muscle adaptation occurred in response to HDT with countermeasures.

Keywords: head-down bed rest; triceps surae muscle; physicaltraining; contraction properties; musculo-tendinous stiffness;electromechanical delay


  1. Kozlovskaya I.B., Grigor'eva L.S., Gevlich G.I. Sravnitel'nii analiz vliyanii nevesomosti i ee modeli na skorostno-silovie svoistva i tonus skeletnih mishts cheloveka . Kosm. biologii i aviakosm. meditsina. 1984. 18. P. 22-26.
  3. Koryak Yu.A. Funktsional'nie svoistva nervno-mishechnogo apparata u sportsmenov raznih spetsializatsii . Fiziologiya cheloveka. 1993. 19. P. 95-104.
  5. Koryak Yu. Adaptatsiya skeletnih mishts cheloveka k izmeneniyu nagruzki. Eksperimental'noe issledovanie. Germany. LAM LAMBERT Acad. Publ. GmbH & Co. KG. 2011. P. 402.
  7. Koryak Yu.A. Nervno-mishechnaya adaptatsiya k kratkovremennim i prodolzhitel'nim kosmicheskim poletam cheloveka. V kn.: Mezhdunarodnaya kosmicheskaya stantsiya Rossiiskii segment. Pod red. Grigor'eva A.I., Ushakova I.B. M.: RAN IMBRP RAN. 2011. 2. P. 93-123.
  9. Koryak Yu.A. Sokratitel'nie svoistva i mishechno-suhozhil'naya zhestkost' trehglavoi mishtsi goleni i ih izmeneniya v rezul'tate prodolzhitel'nogo postel'nogo rezhima . Fiziol. zhurn. 2012. 58. P. 66-79.
  11. Stepantsov V.I., Tihonov M.A., Eremin A.V. Fizicheskaya trenirovka kak metod preduprezhdeniya gipodinamicheskogo sindroma . Kosm. biologiya i aviakosmich. meditsina. 1972. 6. P. 64-69.
  13. Akeson W.H., Amiel D., Abel M.F., Garfin S.R., Woo S.L.Effects of immobilization on joints . Clin. Orthop. 1987. 219. p. 28-37. CrossRef  
  14. Akima H., Ushiyama J., Kubo J., Tonosaki S., Itoh M., Kawakami Y., Fukuoka H., Kanehisa H., Fukunaga T. Resistance training during unweighting maintains muscle size and function in human calf . Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2003. 35. P. 655-662. CrossRef PubMed
  16. Alway S.E., MacDougall J.D., Sale D.G., Sutton J.R., McComas A.J. Functional and structural adaptations in skeletal muscle of trained athletes . J. Appl. Physiol. 1998. 64. P. 1114-1120.  CrossRef PubMed
  18. Buchanan C.I., Marsh R.L. Effects of long-term exercise on the biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon of guinea fowl . Ibid. 2001. 90. P. 164-171.  CrossRef  
  19. Bojsen-Moller J., Magnusson S.P., Rasmussen L.R., Kjaer M., Aagaard P. Muscle performance during maximal isometric and dynamic contractions is influenced by the stiffness of the tendinous structures . Ibid. 2005. 99. P. 986-994. CrossRef  
  20. Cavanagh P.R., Komi P.V. Electromechanical delay in human skeletal muscle under concentric and eccentric contractions . Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1979. 42. P. 159-163. CrossRef   Ducomps C., Mauriege P., Darche B. Combes S., Lebas F., Doutreloux J.P. Effects of jump training on passive mechanical stress and stiffness in rabbit skeletal muscle: role of collagen . Acta Physiol. Scand. 2003. 178. P. 215-224 CrossRef PubMed  
  21. Finni T., Komi P.V., Lukkariniemi J. Achilles tendon loading during walking: application of a novel optic fiber technique . Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998. 77. P. 289-291. CrossRef PubMed
  23. Fitts R.H., Riley D.R., Widrick J.J. Physiology of a microgravity environment invited review: microgravity and skeletal muscle . J. Appl. Physiol. 2000. 89. P. 823-839. CrossRef PubMed
  25. Fukunaga T., Kubo K., Kawakami Y., Fukashiro S., Kanehisa H., Maganaris C.N. In vivo behaviour of human muscle tendon during walking . Proc. R. Soc. London. B Biol. Sci. 2001. 268. P. 229-233. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  27. Hansen P., Aagaard P., Kjaer M., Larsson B., Magnusson S.P. Effect of habitual running on human Achilles tendon loaddeformation properties and cross-sectional area . J. Appl. Physiol. 2003. 95. P. 2375-2380. CrossRef PubMed
  29. Hill A.V. The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle . Proc. Royal. Soc. London Series B Containing Papers of a Biological Character. 1938. 126. P. 136-195. CrossRef  
  30. Hof A.L., van den Berg J.W. EMG to force processing I: an electrical analog of the Hill muscle model . J. Biomech. 1981. 14. P. 747-758.  CrossRef  
  31. Koryak Yu. Contractile properties of the human triceps surae muscle during simulated weightlessness . Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1995. 70. P. 344-350.  CrossRef  
  32. Koryak Yu. Effect of 120 days of bed-rest with and without countermeasures on the mechanical properties of the triceps surae muscle in young women . Ibid. 1998. 78. P. 128-135. CrossRef  
  33. Kubo K., Kanehisa H., Ito M., Fukunaga T. Effects of isometric training on the elasticity of human tendon structures in vivo . J. Appl. Physiol. 2001. 91. P. 26-32. CrossRef PubMed
  35. Kubo K., Kanehisa H., Kawakami Y., Fukunaga T. Elastic properties of muscle-tendon complex in longdistance runners . Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2000. 81. P. 181-187. CrossRef PubMed
  37. Lambertz D., Perot C., Kaspranski R., Goubel F. Effects of longterm spaceflight on mechanical properties of muscles in humans . J. Appl. Physiol. 2001. 90. P. 179-188. CrossRef PubMed
  39. Less M., Krewer S.E., Eickelberg W.W. Exercise effect on strength and range of motion of hand intrinsic muscles and joints . Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1977. 58. P. 370-374. PubMed
  41. MacDougall J.D., Elder G.C.B., Sale D.G., Moroz J.R., Sutton J.R. Effect of strength training and immobilization on human muscle fibres . Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1980. 43. P. 25-34. CrossRef  
  42. Maganaris C.N. Tensile properties of in vivo human tendinous tissue . J. Biomech. 2002. 35. P. 1019-1027. CrossRef  
  43. Maganaris C.N., Paul J.P. Tensile properties of the in vivo human gastrocnemius tendon . Ibid. 2002. 35. P. 1639-1646. CrossRef  
  44. Magnusson S.P., Aagaard P., Dyhre-Poulsen P., Kjaer M. Load-displacement properties of the human triceps surae aponeurosis in vivo . J. Physiol. 2001. 531. P. 277-288.  CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  46. Malisoux L., Francaux M., Nielens H., Theisen D. Stretchshortening cycle exercises: an effective training paradigm to enhance power output of human single muscle fibers . J. Appl. Physiol. 2006. 100. P 771-779.  CrossRef PubMed
  48. Milner-Brown H.S., Stein R.B., Lee R.G. Synchronization of human motor units: possible roles of exercise and supraspinal reflexes . Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 1975. 38. P. 245-254. CrossRef  
  49. Muraoka T., Muramatsu T., Fukunaga T., Kanehisa H. Influence of tendon slack on electromechanical delay in the human medial gastrocnemius in vivo . J. Appl. Physiol. 2004. 96. P. 540-544. CrossRef PubMed
  51. Narici M., Kayser B., Barattini P., Cerretelli P. Effects of 17-day spaceflight on electrically evoked torque and cross-sectional area of the human triceps surae . Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2003. 90. P. 275-282. CrossRef PubMed
  53. Nicogossian A.E. Countermeasures to space deconditioning. In: Space physiology and medicine. Nicogossian A.E., Huntoon C., Pool S.L., eds. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1982. P. 294-311.
  55. Norman R.W., Komi P.V. Electromechanical delay in skeletal muscle under normal movement conditions . Acta Physiol. Scand. 1979. 106. P. 241-248. CrossRef PubMed
  57. Pousson M., Perot C., Goubel F. Stiffness changes and fibre type transitions in rat soleus muscle produced by jumping training . Pflugers Arch. 1991. 419. P. 127-130. CrossRef PubMed
  59. Reeves N.D., Maganaris C.N., Narici M.V. Effect of strength training on human patella tendon mechanical properties of older individuals . J. Physiol. 2003. 548. P. 971-981. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  61. Reeves N.D., Narici M.V., Maganaris C.N. In vivo human muscle structure and function: adaptations to resistance training in old age . Exp. Physiol. 2004. 89. P. 675-689. CrossRef PubMed
  63. Sica R.E.P., McComas A.J. An electrophysiological investigation of limb-girdlee and facioscapulohumeral dystrophy . J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 1971. 34. P. 469-474.  CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral
  65. Trappe T.A., Burd N.A., Louis E.S., Lee G.A., Trappe S.W. Influence of concurrent exercise or nutrition countermeasures on thigh and calf muscle size and function during 60 days of bed rest in women . Acta Physiol. 2007. 191. P. 147-159.  CrossRef PubMed
  67. Trappe S., Costill D., Gallagher P., Creer A., Peters J.R., Evans H., Relley D.A., Fitts R.H. Exercise in space: human skeletal muscle after 6 months aboard the International Space Station . J. Appl. Physiol. 2009. 106. P. 1159-1168. CrossRef PubMed
  69. Trappe S., Creer A., Minchev K., Slivka D., Louis E., Luden N., Trappe T. Human soleus single muscle fiber function with exercise or nutrition countermeasures during 60 days of bed rest . Amer. J. Physiol. 2008. 294. P. R939-R947.
  71. Tesch P.A. Training for bodybuilding. In: The encyclopedia of sports medicine. Strength and power in sports. (Komi P.A. ed.). Blackwell Oxford. 1991. P. 370-380.
  73. Vos E.G., Harlaar J., van Schenau I. Electromechanical delay during knee extensor contractions . Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1991. 23. P. 1187-1193. CrossRef PubMed
  75. Weiss A.D. The locus of reaction time change with set, motivation and age . J. Gerontol. 1965. 20. P. 60-64. CrossRef PubMed
  77. Woo S.L., Gomez M.A., Woo Y.K. Akeson W.H. Mechanical properties of tendons and ligaments. II. The relationships of immobilization and exercise on tissue remodeling . Biorheology. 1982. 19. P. 397-408. CrossRef PubMed
  79. Woo S.L., Ritter M.A., Amiel D., Sanders T.M., Gomez M.A., Kuei S.C., Garfin S.R., Akeson W.H. The biomechanical and biochemical properties of swine tendons-long term effects of exercise on the digital extensors . Connect Tissue Res. 1980. 7. P. 177-183. CrossRef PubMed
  81. Zajac F.E. Muscle and tendon: properties, models, scaling, and application to biomechanics and motor control . Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1989. 17. P. 359-411. PubMed

© National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, 2014-2023.